Effects of waves and tide on tidal flat ecosystems

  • Eiichi Baba
  • Hideo Kawarada
  • Wataru Nishijima
  • Mitsumasa Okada
  • Hiroshi Suito


Coming wave to coastal area has an essential effect on ecosystems. In shallow water region such as sandy beach and tidal flats, wave run-ups due to breaking waves, whose height are around 5 cm to 10 cm, are often observed at the slope. In addition to the tidal motion, these small waves may affect water flow inside the seabed. Internal flow in the seabed has close relation with biological activities in these areas. Seawater is a kind of transport medium for oxygen and nutrients. As stated in Chap. 1, the number of bacteria inside the seabed is known to closely correlate with the silt content because the presence of such small partic1es increases the wet surface area for bacteria habitation. The small particles easily move along with the flow. Therefore, to determine the internal flow characteristics of tidal flat is important for understanding of its ecological role. Studies on seawater transport in the surf zone have been carried out mostly for large waves of several meters: (Riedel 1971; McLachlan 1982). However, studies for small waves of several cm high are scarce, hitherto.


Tidal Flat Sandy Beach Total Organic Carbon Content Benthic Alga Surf Zone 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eiichi Baba
    • 1
  • Hideo Kawarada
    • 2
  • Wataru Nishijima
    • 3
  • Mitsumasa Okada
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Suito
    • 4
  1. 1.Information Exchange OfficeHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Distribution and Logistics SystemsRyutsu Keizai UniversityRyuugasaki IbarakiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate School of EngineeringHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Environmental and Mathematical SciencesOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

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