This chapter examines a set of interfaces, architectures and protocols which typify communications between computers and also illustrate the gradual domination of IP in the world of communications extending beyond the sphere of IT specialists. In chronological order of appearance, the chapter will deal with Telnet, the terminal emulation protocol; FTP, the file transfer protocol which relies to some extent on Telnet; the DNS domain name system, which is the basic architecture for communications using IP addresses; the LDAP directory service, electronic messaging (SMTP, POP, MIME) and news (NNTP), HTTP — indispensable key to the Web — and, finally, WAP, allowing access to the Web via a mobile terminal.
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