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4 Rhizaria: Phytomyxea

Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA,volume 7A)

Abstract

Phytomyxea comprises two orders: Plasmodiophorida and Phagomyxida. The group is characterized by a unique type of nuclear division, cruciform division, in which a persistent nucleolus aligns parallel to the spindle and perpendicularly to the metaphase plate of chromatin. Other major features of Phytomyxea are intracellular, biotrophic plasmodia as growth forms and heterokont, biflagellated zoospores. Members of Plasmodiophorida produce environmentally resistant resting spores, which have not been observed in Phagomyxida. Economically significant phytomyxids include the causal agents of clubroot on cabbage and other brassicaceous crops and powdery scab of potato. In addition, several Phytomyxea are vectors for pathogenic viruses on crop plants, including wheat and sugar beet.

Keywords

  • Synaptonemal Complex
  • Nuclear Division
  • Powdery Scab
  • Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus
  • Life Cycle Phase

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Figs. 4.1–4.5
Fig. 4.6
Fig. 4.7
Fig. 4.8

Notes

  1. 1.

    Sorosphaera has been used throughout this review because historically Sorosphaera was the name used in the literature for the genus. Neuhauser and Kirchmair (2011) noted, however, that since both Phytomyxea and Foraminifera are now recognized as members of the supergroup Rhizaria (Archibald and Keeling 2004; Bass et al. 2009; Burki et al. 2010), based on the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), a homonomy exists between the plasmodiophorid Sorosphaera J. Schröter and the foraminiferan Sorosphaera Brady. To resolve the homonomy, Neuhauser and Kirchmair (2011) proposed that Sorosphaerula nom. n. replace Sorosphaera J. Schröter for this genus.

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Correspondence to James P. Braselton .

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Bulman, S., Braselton, J.P. (2014). 4 Rhizaria: Phytomyxea. In: McLaughlin, D., Spatafora, J. (eds) Systematics and Evolution. The Mycota, vol 7A. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-55318-9_4

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