Renal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for approximately 2–3 % of all human malignancies and shows a worldwide increase of incidence rate of 2 % per year . It primarily affects men and women at the age of 50–70 years with a twofold higher incidence rate in men. Clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequent histological subtype (~80–90 %) besides papillary (10–15 %) and chromophobe (4–5 %) subtype . About 25–30 % of RCC patients present with a metastatic disease (mRCC) at the time of diagnosis. Patients with mRCC generally have a poor prognosis and the 5-year disease-specific survival for University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system (UISS) was 41 % in the low-risk group, 18 % in intermediate and 8 % in the high-risk group . Aetiological risk factors for RCC seem to be smoking, hypertension and obesity . The tumour node metastasis (TNM) staging system and the Fuhrman nuclear grade are commonly recommended for classification, diagnosis and prognosis of RCC patients (Table 39.1).
KeywordsRenal Cell Carcinoma Renal Cell Cancer Tumour Node Metastasis Radical Nephrectomy Clear Cell Carcinoma