Orchitis, the isolated inflammation of the testis, is an uncommon disease. The isolated inflammation of the epididymis, epididymitis, is relatively more common. Epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of these infections are lacking. In general, the aetiology of primary and secondary orchitis has been classified into nonspecific, specific and viral orchitis (Table 29.1). Viral orchitis, the most common type of primary haematogenous orchitis, is most often caused by mumps infection. According to older data, it does occur in 20–30 % of post-pubertal men with mumps infection . Secondary orchitis usually occurs in connection with a nonspecific or specific epididymitis as “epididymoorchitis” and is usually bacterial in aetiology. In men aged 15–60 years, the incidence rate of epididymoorchitis have been reported as 21 per 10,000 patient-years in the UK . The most common pathogens in men ≤35 years of age are sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In boys younger than 14 years and in men older than 35 years, infection is generally caused by common urinary pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria, and often associated with urogenital malformations and bladder outlet obstruction. Specific granulomatous epididymoorchitis can occur by systemic infections such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis and fungal disease.
KeywordsBladder Outlet Obstruction Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Sexually Transmitted Disease Coliform Bacterium Testicular Torsion
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