Haematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Blood visible in the urine is called gross haematuria. Microhaematuria is defined as ≥3 red blood cells (RBCs) per high-power field on microscopic examination. Chemical urine dipstick has a high sensitivity of up to 1–2 RBCs × 1012 per litre. In general >5,000 RBCs/μl urine or approx. 1-ml blood/urine is needed to achieve visibility. The causes of haematuria are either nephrologic or urologic.