• Hannes CashEmail author
  • Mario W. Kramer


Haematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Blood visible in the urine is called gross haematuria. Microhaematuria is defined as ≥3 red blood cells (RBCs) per high-power field on microscopic examination. Chemical urine dipstick has a high sensitivity of up to 1–2 RBCs × 1012 per litre. In general >5,000 RBCs/μl urine or approx. 1-ml blood/urine is needed to achieve visibility. The causes of haematuria are either nephrologic or urologic.


Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Polycystic Kidney Disease Alport Syndrome Cystic Kidney Magnetic Resonance Urography 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyCharité University Medicine BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Urology and Urological OncologyHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany

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