Nerve Entrapment at Shoulder and Arm

  • Josef Böhm
  • Götz Penkert
  • Thomas Schelle


The entire shoulder and arm nerves are detailed as far as they can be involved by focal lesion entrapment. Anatomy, variants, damaging factors, patient’s presentation of clinical symptoms, value of special electrodiagnostic tests and of supplementary modern imaging techniques, and finally, the surgical approach in case of a diagnosed entrapment of these nerves are described. Each one needs knowledge about which differential-diagnostic aspect has to be taken into account, and which diagnostic tool – electrodiagnosis and/or imaging – has to be used, particularly if there are doubts about whether there could be etiology other than by a simple entrapment. The astonishing value of high resolution ultrasound and several MRI techniques is outlined in these cases. Their value is demonstrated in many figures. Particular attention is repeatedly focussed on the Parsonage-Turner syndrome which may involve special nerve fibers within the brachial plexus and long segments of peripheral nerve trunks. Not only the muscles of the shoulder girdle such as the serratus anterior or deltoid muscles are affected by this inflammatory disease but also e.g. muscles supplied by the interosseus anterior or interosseus posterior nerves. It is argued that diagnosis has to be assessed before worthwhile surgery is started.

Finally, however, surgical instructions are added as figures in order to give an optimal idea of nerve release procedures in uncommon compression cases.


Median Nerve Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Brachial Plexus Ulnar Nerve Radial Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Allieu Y, Privat JM, Bonnel F. Les neurotisations par le nerf spinal dans les avulsions radiculaires du plexus brachial. Neurochir. 1982;28:115–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ouaknine G, Nathan H. Anastomotic connections between the eleventh nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve in humans. J Neurosurg. 1973;38(2):189–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camp SJ, Birch R. Injuries to the spinal accessory nerve: a lesson to surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg. 2011;93(1):62–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donner TR, Kline DG. Extracranial spinal accessory nerve injury. Neurosurgery. 1993;32(6):907–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Müller-Vahl H. Iatrogenic spinal accessory nerve injury. Ann R Coll Surg. 1983;65:276.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Valtonen EJ, Lilius HG. Late sequelae of iatrogenic spinal accessory nerve injury. Acta Chir Scand. 1974;140:453–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Samii M. Operative treatment of accessory nerve lesions. In: Samii M, Jannetta PJ, editors. The cranial nerves. Berlin: Springer; 1981. p. 635–41.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bahrami MH, Rayegani SM, Zare A. Studying nerve conduction velocity and latency of accessory nerve motor potential in normal persons. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;44(1):11–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang CW, Chang KY, Chen YR, Kuo PL. Electrophysiologic evidence of spinal accessory neuropathy in patients with cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(6):935–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laughlin RS, Spinner RJ, Daube JR. Electrophysiological testing of spinal accessory nerve in suspected cases of nerve transection. Muscle Nerve. 2011;44(5):715–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mirjalili SA, Muirhead JC, Stringer MD. Ultrasound visualization of the spinal accessory nerve in vivo. J Surg Res. 2012;175(1):11–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Canella C, Demondion X, Abreu E, Marchiori E, Cotten H, Cotten A. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:56–61.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lucchetta M, Pazzaglia C, Cacciavillani M, Riondato A, D’ Ambrosio CM, Briani C, Padua L. Nerve ultrasound findings in two cases of spinal accessory nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve. 2014;49(2):293–4.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aydın H, Altın E, Dilli A, Sipahioğlu S, Hekimoğlu B. Evaluation of jugular foramen nerves by using b-FFE, T2-weighted DRIVE, T2-weighted FSE and post-contrast T1-weighted MRI sequences. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2011;17(1):3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Penkert G, Fansa H. Peripheral nerve lesions. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 69–72.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Christo PJ, McGreevy K. Updated perspectives on neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15(1):14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ozgönenel L, Akyüz G, Ozgönenel B, Adatepe T. Provocative F wave in the diagnosis of nonspecific neurogenic-type thoracic outlet syndrome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91(4):316–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haghighi SS, Baradarian S, Bagheri R. Sensory and motor evoked potentials findings in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;45(3):149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jordan SE, Ahn SA, Gelabert HA. Differentiation of thoracic outlet syndrome from treatment resistant cervical brachial plexus syndromes: development and utilization of a questionnaire, clinical examination and ultrasound evaluation. Pain Physician. 2007;10:​441–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Machanic BI, Sanders RJ. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve measurements to diagnose neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008;22(2):248–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Urschel HC, Kourlis H. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a 50-year experience at Baylor University Medical Center. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2007;20(2):125–35.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Misawa T, Kiyono Y, Nakatsuchi Y, Shindo M, Takaoka K. Diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome by magnetic stimulation of the brachial plexus. J Orthop Sci. 2002;7(2):167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cakmur R, Idiman F, Akalin E, Genç A, Yener GG, Oztürk V. Dermatomal and mixed nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in the diagnosis of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1998;108(5):423–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tolson TD. “EMG” for thoracic outlet syndrome. Hand Clin. 2004;20(1):37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Passero S, Paradiso C, Giannini F, Cioni R, Burgalassi L, Battistini N. Diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome. Relative value of electrophysiological studies. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994;90(3):179–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martinoli C, Gandolfo N, Perez MM, Klauser A, Palmieri F, Padua L, Tagliafico A. Brachial plexus and nerves about the shoulder. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2010;14(5):523–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aralasmak A, Cevikol C, Karaali K, Senol U, Sharifov R, Kilicarslan R, Alkan A. MRI findings in thoracic outlet syndrome. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41(11):1365–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Santacroce E, Pugliese F, Graif M, Derchi LE. Brachial plexus sonography: a technique for assessing the root level. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(3):699–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haun DW, Cho JC, Clark TB, Kettner NW. Normative cross-sectional area of the brachial plexus and subclavian artery using ultrasonography. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32(7):564–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Haun DW, Cho JC, Kettner NW. Normative cross-sectional area of the C5-C8 nerve roots using ultrasonography. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010;36(9):1422–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boehm J, Scheidl E, Bereczki D et al. High-Resolution Ultrasonography of Peripheral Nerves: Measurements on 14 Nerve Segments in 56 Healthy Subjects and Reliability Assessments. Ultraschall Med. 2014 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Atasoy E. Thoracic outlet compression syndrome. Orth Clin North Am. 1996;27(2):265–303.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adson AW. Cervical ribs: symptoms, differential diagnosis and indications for section of the insertion of the scalenus anticus muscle. J Int Coll Surg. 1951;16(5):546–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kline DG, Hudson AR. Nerve injuries. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1995. p. 474–92.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dellon AL. The results of supraclavicular brachial plexus neurolysis (without first rib resection ) in management of posttraumatic “thoracic outlet syndrome”. J Reconstr Microsurg. 1993;9:11–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carty NJ, Carpenter R, Webster JH. Continuing experience with transaxillary excision of the first rib for thoracic outlet syndrome. Br J Surg. 1992;79:761–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roos DB. Transaxillary approach for first rib resection to relieve thoracic outlet syndrome. Ann Surg. 1966;163:354–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dubuisson AS, Kline DG, Weinshel SS. Posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus: report of 102 patients. J Neurosurg. 1993;79:319–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Qvarfordt PG, Ehrenfeld WK, Stoney RJ. Supraclavicular radical scalenectomy and transaxillary first rib resection for the thoracic outlet syndrome. A combined approach. Am J Surg. 1984;148:111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Huang JH, Zager EL. Thoracic outlet syndrome. Neurosurg. 2004;55(4):897–903.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Millesi H, Hausner T, Schmidhammer R, Trattnig S, Tschabitscher M. Anatomical structures to provide passive motility of peripheral nerve trunks and fascicles. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;100:133–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aggarwal A, Puri N, Aggarwal AK, Harjeet K, Sahni D. Anatomical variation in the formation of brachial plexus and its branching. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32:891–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Matejeik V. Anatomical variations in the brachial trunk and nerve roots. Rozhl Chir. 2003;82:450–9.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Falconer MA, Weddell G. Costoclavicular compression of the subclavian artery and vein: relation to the scalenus anticus syndrome. Lancet. 1943;2:539–43.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    McGowan JM, Velinsky M. Costoclavicular compression. Arch Surg. 1949;59:62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Falconer MA, Li FWP. Resection of the first rib in costoclavicular compression of the brachial plexus. Lancet. 1962;1:59–63.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wright J. The neurovascular syndrome produced by hyperabduction of the arm. Am Heart J. 1945;29:1–19.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lo Monaco M, Di Pasqua PG, Tonali P. Conduction studies along the accessory, long thoracic, dorsal scapular, and thoracodorsal nerves. Acta Neurol Scand. 1983;68(3):171–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bischoff C, Conrad B. Das EMG Buch. 1. Auflage. Stuttgard, New York. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart 1998. ISBN 3-13-110341-8, pp. 1–65.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hanson NA, Auyong DB. Systematic ultrasound identification of the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves during interscalene block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013;38:54–7.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lieba-Samal D, Morgenbesser J, Moritz T, Gruber GM, Bernathova M, Michaud J, Bodner G. Visualization of the Long Thoracic Nerve using High-Resolution Sonography. Ultraschall Med. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nath RK, Lyons AB, Bietz G. Microneurolysis and decompression of long thoracic nerve injury are effective in reversing scapular winging: long-term results in 50 cases. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:25–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nath RK, Melcher SE. Rapid recovery of serratus anterior muscle function after microneurolysis of long thoracic nerve injury. J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2007;2:4–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Disa JJ, Wang B, Dellon AL. Correction of scapular winging by supraclavicular neurolysis of the long thoracic nerve. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2001;17(2):79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Birch R, Bonney G, Parry CB. Surgical disorders of the peripheral nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. p. 285.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Antoniadis G, Richter H-P, Rath S, Braun V, Moese G. Suprascapular nerve entrapment: experience with 28 cases. J Neurosurg. 1996;85:1020–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kiss G, Komar J. Suprascapular nerve compression at the spinoglenoid notch. Muscle Nerve. 1990;13:556–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Donovan WH, Kraft GH. Rotator cuff tear versus suprascapular nerve injury: a problem in differential diagnosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1974;55:424–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Thompson RC, Schneider S, Kennedy TK. Entrapment neuropathy of the inferior branch of the suprascapular nerve by ganglia. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;166:185–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Boykin RE, Friedman DJ, Zimmer ZR, Oaklander AL, Higgins LD, Warner JJ. Suprascapular neuropathy in a shoulder referral practice. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(6):983–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Buschbacher RM, Weir SK, Bentley JG, Cottrell E. Normal motor nerve conduction studies using surface electrode recording from the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid, and biceps. PM R. 2009;1(2):101–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Freehill MT, Shi LL, Tompson JD, Warner JJ. Suprascapular neuropathy: diagnosis and management. Phys Sportsmed. 2012;40(1):72–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Harmon D1, Hearty C. Ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block technique. Pain Physician. 2007;10(6):743–6.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Siegenthaler A, Moriggl B, Mlekusch S, Schliessbach J, Haug M, Curatolo M, Eichenberger U. Ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block, description of a novel supraclavicular approach. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012;37(3):325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Battaglia PJ, Haun DW, Dooley K, Kettner NW. Sonographic measurement of the normal suprascapular nerve and omohyoid muscle. Man Ther. 2014;19(2):165–8. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2013.12.005. Epub 2013 Dec 27.
  66. 66.
    Bredella MA, Tirman PF, Fritz RC, Wischer TK, Stork A, Genant HK. Denervation syndromes of the shoulder girdle: MR imaging with electrophysiologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 1999;28(10):567–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chalian M, Faridian-Aragh N, Soldatos T, Batra K, Belzberg AJ, Williams EH, Carrino JA, Chhabra A. High-resolution 3T MR neurography of suprascapular neuropathy. Acad Radiol. 2011;18(8):1049–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maniker AH. Operative exposures in peripheral nerve surgery. New York: Thieme; 2005. p. 29–33.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Millesi H. Chirurgie der peripheren Nerven. München: Urban & Schwarzenberg; 1992. p. 107–9.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kline D, Hudson AR, Kim DH. Atlas of peripheral nerve surgery. Philadelphia: W B Saunders; 2001. p. 62–5.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Birch R, Bonney G, Parry CBW. Surgical disorders of the peripheral nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. p. 110–1.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarno JB. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. Surg Neurol. 1983;20:493–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Clein LJ. Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy. J Neurosurg. 1975;43:337–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Spinner RJ, Amrani KK, Kliot M, Johnston SP, et al. Suprascapular intraneural ganglia and glenohumreal joint connections. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:551–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cahill BR, Palmer RE. Quadrilateral space syndrome. J Hand Surg. 1983;8:65–9.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Redler M, Ruland LJ, McCue FC. Quadrilateral space syndrome in a throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14:511–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rothe C, Asghar S, Andersen HL, Christensen JK, Lange KH. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011;55(5):565–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gruber H, Peer S, Gruber L, Loescher W, Bauer T, Loizides A. Ultrasound Imaging of the Axillary Nerve and its Role in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Impairment. Ultraschall Med. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dong Q, Jacobson JA, Jamadar DA, Gandikota G, Brandon C, Morag Y, Fessell DP, Kim SM. Entrapment neuropathies in the upper and lower limbs: anatomy and MRI features. Radiol Res Pract. 2012;2012:230679. doi: 10.1155/2012/230679. Epub 2012 Oct 17.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kline DG, Hudson AR, Kim DH. Atlas of peripheral nerve surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001. p. 224.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Penkert G, Fansa H. Peripheral nerve lesions. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 86–8.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saced M, Rufal AA. Median and musculocutaneous nerves: variant formations and distribution. Clin Anat. 2003;16:453–7.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Buschbacher R, Koch J, Emsley C, Katz B. Electrodiagnostic reference values for the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve: standardization of a 10-cm distance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(12):1563–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tagliafico AS, Michaud J, Marchetti A, Garello I, Padua L, Martinoli C. US imaging of the musculocutaneous nerve. Skeletal Radiol. 2011;40(5):609–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Christophe JL, Berthier F, Boillot A, Tatu L, Viennet A, Boichut N, Samain E. Assessment of topographic brachial plexus nerves variations at the axilla using ultrasonography. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103(4):606–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yongwei P, Guanglei T, Jianing W, Shuhuan W, Qingtai L, Wen T. Nontraumatic paralysis of the radial nerve with multiple constrictions. J Hand Surg. 2003;28A:199–205.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yamamoto S, Nagano A, Mikami Y, Tajiri Y. Multiple constrictions of the radial nerve without external compression. J Hand Surg. 2000;25A:134–7.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Penkert G, Fansa H. Peripheral nerve lesions. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 19–20.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Preston D, Shapiro B (2005) Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders: clinical –electrophysiologic correlations. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. p. 345–60.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dumitru D, Amato A, Zwarts M. Electrodiagnostic medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Hanley Belfus; 2002. p. 1090.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bodner G, et al. Radial nerve palsy associated with humeral shaft fracture: evaluation with US–initial experience. Radiology. 2001;219(3):811–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wilder-Smith EP, Hilal S, Kannan AT, Chan YC. Yield of investigations in radial nerve lesions using high resolution ultrasonography, 29th International Congress of Clinical Neurophysiology, 2010, Kobe, Poster P3–4.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rossey-Marec D. Ultrasonographic appearance of idiopathic radial nerve constriction proximal to the elbow. J Ultrasound Med.2004;23:1003–4.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Faridian-Aragh N, Chalian M, Soldatos T, Thawait GK, Deune EG, Belzberg AJ, Carrino JA, Chhabra A. High-resolution 3T MR neurography of radial neuropathy. J Neuroradiol. 2011;38(5):265–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chhabra A, Deune GE, Murano E, Prince JL, Soldatos T, Flammang A. Advanced MR neurography imaging of radial nerve entrapment at the spiral groove: a case report. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2012;28(4):263–6. Epub 2012 Mar.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pećina M, Krmpotić-Nemanić J, Markiewitz AD. Tunnel syndromes. 3. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001. p. 105–8.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bolster MAJ, Bakker XR. Radial tunnel syndrome: emphasis on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. J Hand Surg Eur. 2009;34:343–7.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stöhr M. Entrapment neuropathies – quality requirements for neurological and neurophysiological diagnosis. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2002;34(5):269–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bordalo-Rodrigues M, Rosenberg ZS. MR imaging of entrapment neuropathies at the elbow. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2004;12:247–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Malipeddi A, Reddy VR, Kallarackal G. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy: an unusual complication of rheumatoid arthritis: case report and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;40(6):576–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Guerra WK, Schroeder HW. Peripheral nerve palsy by torsional nerve injury. Neurosurgery. 2011;68(4):1018–24; discussion 1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Seror P. Posterior interosseous nerve conduction. A new method of evaluation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):35–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kupfer DM, Bronson J, Lee GW, Beck J, Gillet J. Differential latency testing: a more sensitive test for radial tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 1998;23(5):859–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dong Q, Jamadar DA, Robertson BL, Jacobson JA, Caoili EM, Gest T, Girish G. Posterior interosseous nerve of the elbow: normal appearances simulating entrapment. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29(5):691–6.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tagliafico A, Martinoli C. Reliability of side-to-side sonographic cross-sectional area measurements of upper extremity nerves in healthy volunteers. J Ultrasound Med. 2013 Mar;32(3):457–62.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Djurdjevic T1, Loizides A, Löscher W, Gruber H, Plaikner M, Peer S. High resolution ultrasound in posterior interosseous nerve syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2014;49(1):35–9. doi: 10.1002/mus.23867. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
  107. 107.
    Chien A, Jamadar D, Jacobson J, Hayes C, Louis D. Sonography and MR imaging of posterior interosseous nerve syndrome with surgical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(1):219–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ong C, Nallamshetty HS, Nazarian LN, Rekant MS, Mandel S. Sonographic diagnosis of posterior interosseous nerve entrapment syndrome Radiology Case Reports. [Online] 2007;2:67Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Joy V, Therimadasamy A, Cheun C, Wilder-Smith E. Diagnostic utility of ultrasound in posterior interosseous nerve syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(7):902–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bodner G, Harpf C, Meirer R, Gardetto A, Kovacs P, Gruber H. Ultrasonographic appearance of supinator syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 2002;21(11):1289–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Subhawong T, Wang K, Thawait S, Williams E, Hashemi S, Machado A, Carrino J, Chhabra A. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41(1):15–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Böhm J, Visser LH, Lehmann T-N. High-resolution sonography of posttraumatic neuroma of the superficial radial nerve. Cen Eur Neurosurg. 2011;72:158–60.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hudson AR. Peripheral nerve surgery. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, et al., editors. Peripheral neuropathy, vol. 1. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1984. p. 434.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Penkert G, Fansa H. Peripheral nerve lesions. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 123–4.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mackenzie K, De Lisa JA. Distal latency measurement of the superficial radial nerve in normal adult subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:70–3.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ma DM, Kim SH, Spielholz N, Goodgold J. Sensory conduction study of distal radial nerve. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62(11):562–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Spindler HA, Dellon AL. Nerve conduction studies in the superficial radial nerve entrapment syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1990;13(1):1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mondelli M, Morama P, Ballerini M, Rossi S, Giannini F. Mononeuropathies oft he radial nerve: clinical and neurographic findings in 91 consecutive cases. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2005;15:377–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Marx SC, Kumar P, SD, Marx CA, Babu MS, Bhat KM. Histological and ultrasonographical study of the human superficial branch of the radial nerve at distal forearm and its clinical implications. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51(4):751–8.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Visser LH. High-resolution sonography of the superficial radial nerve with two case reports. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39(3):392–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Millesi H. Chirurgie der peripheren Nerven. München: Urban & schwarzenberg; 1992. p. 136.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    De Jesus R, Dellon AL. Historic origin of the “arcade of Struthers”. J Hand Surg. 2003;28A(3):528–31.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stewart JD. Focal peripheral neuropathies. New York: Elsevier; 1987. p. 143.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Birch R, Bonney G, Parry CB. Surgical disorders of the peripheral nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. p. 284.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gelberman RH. Operative nerve repair and reconstruction. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1991. p. 995–1002.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Vogel P. Kursbuch Klinische Neurophysiologie. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2001. p. 200.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bridgeman C, Naidu S, Kothari MJ. Clinical and electrophysiological presentation of pronator syndrome. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;47(2):89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kim SJ, Hong SH, Jun WS, Choi JY, Myung JS, Jacobson JA, Lee JW, Choi JA, Kang HS. MR imaging mapping of skeletal muscle denervation in entrapment and compressive neuropathies. Radiographics. 2011;31(2):319–32. doi: 10.1148/rg.312105122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Spinner M. The anterior interosseous-nerve syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg. 1970;52A:84–94.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gardner-Thorpe C. Anterior interosseus nerve palsy: spontaneous recovery in two patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1974;37:1146–50.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Megele R. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome with atypical nerve course in relation to the pronator teres. Acta Neurochir. 1988;91:144–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yasunaga H, Shiroishi T, Ohta K, Matsunaga H, Ota Y. Fascicular torsion in the median nerve within the distal third of the upper arm: three cases of nontraumatic anterior interosseous nerve palsy. J Hand Surg. 2003;28A(2):206–11.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kiloh LG, Nevin S. Isolated neuritis of the anterior interosseous nerve. Br Med J. 1952;1:850–2.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gaitzsch G, Channay A. Paralytic brachial neuritis or Parsonage Turner syndrome with anterior interosseous nerve involvement. Report of three cases. Ann Chir Main. 1986;5(4):288–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wong L, Dellon AL. Brachial neuritis presenting as anterior interosseous nerve compression – implications for diagnosis and treatment: a case report. J Hand Surg Am. 1997;22(3):536–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Seror P. Electrodiagnostic examination of the anterior interosseus nerve. Normal and pathologic data (21 cases). Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;39(3):183–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mysiw WJ, Colachis SC. Electrophysiologic study of the anterior interosseous nerve. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1988;67(2):50–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mannerfelt L. Studies on the hand in ulnar nerve paralysis. A clinical-experimental investigation in normal and anomalous innervation. Acta Orthop Scand. 1966: Suppl 87:1Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Seror P, Leger JM, Maisonobe T. Anterior interosseous nerve and multifocal motor neuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(6):841–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wertsch JJ, Sanger JR, Matloub HS. Pseudo-anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1985;8(1):68–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tagliafico A, Cadoni A, Fisci E, Gennaro S, Molfetta L, Perez MM, Klauser A, Martinoli C. Nerves of the hand beyond the carpal tunnel. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2012;16:129–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Andreisek G, Crook DW, Burg D, Marincek B, Weishaupt D. Peripheral neuropathies of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves: MR imaging features. Radiographics. 2006;26:1267–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Dunn AJ, Salonen DC, Anastakis DJ. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 2007;36(12):1155–62. Epub 2007 Oct 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Grainger AJ, Campbell RS, Stothard J. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome: appearance at MR imaging in three cases. Radiology. 1998;208:381–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Subhawong TK, Wang KC, Thawait SK, Williams EH, Hashemi SS, Machado AJ, Carrino JA, Chhabra A. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41(1):15–31. doi: 10.1007/s00256-011-1143-1. Epub 2011 Apr 10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gyftopoulos S, Rosenberg ZS, Petchprapa C. Increased MR signal intensity in the pronator quadratus muscle: does it always indicate anterior interosseous neuropathy? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:490–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lanz U. Anatomical variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. J Hand Surg. 1977;2(1):44–53.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mauersberger W, Meese W. Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by the persistence of the median artery. Neurochirurgia. 1975;18:15–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Forrest WJ. Motor innervation of human thenar and hypothenar muscles in 25 hands: a study combining electromyography and percutaneous nerve stimulation. Can J Surg. 1967;10:196–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hayden J. Median neuropathy in the carpal tunnel caused by spontaneous intraneural hemorrhage. J Bone Joint Surg. 1964;46-A(6):1242–4.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Maxwell JA, Kepes JJ, Ketchum LD. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to thrombosis of a persistent median artery. J Neurosurg. 1973;38:774–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tompkins DG. Median neuropathy in the carpal tunnel caused by tumor-like conditions. J Bone Joint Surg. 1967;49-A(4):737–40.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Abbott LRC, Saunders M. Injuries of the median nerve in fractures of the lower end of the radius. Surg Gynec Obstet. 1933;57:507–16.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Girsch W, Rab M, et al. Endoscopic versus open carpal tunnel release: setup of a prospective randomised study. In: Frey M, editor. Endoscopy and microsurgery. Wien: Springer; 2001. p. 47–58.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Curtis RM, Eversmann WW. Internal neurolysis as an adjunct to the treatment of the carpal-tunnel syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg. 1973;55-A(4):733–40.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Jablecki CK, Andary MT, Floeter MK, et al. Practice parameter: electrodiagnostic studies in carpal tunnel syndrome: report of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Academy of Neurology and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2002;58(11):1589–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Padua L, Giannini F, Girlanda P, et al. Usefulness of segmental and comparative tests in the electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: the Italian multicenter study. Italian CTS Study Group. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1999;20(5):315–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sander HW, Quinto C, Saadeh PB, et al. Sensitive median-ulnar motor comparative techniques in carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1999;22(1):88–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Löscher WN, Auer-Grumbach M, Trinka E, et al. Comparison of second lumbrical and interosseus latencies with standard measures of median nerve function across the carpal tunnel: a prospective study. J Neurol. 2000;247(7):530–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    S3-Leitlinie “Karpaltunnelsyndrom” (AWMF-Registernummer 005–003), September 2012 (German).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Witt JC, Stevens JC. Neurologic disorders masquerading as carpal tunnel syndrome: 12 cases of failed carpal tunnel release. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:409–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hobson-Webb LD, Massey JM, Juel VC, et al. The ultrasonographic wrist-to-forearm median nerve area ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119(6):1353–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cartwright M, Hobson-Webb L, Boon A, et al. Evidence-based guideline: neuromuscular ultrasound for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2012;46:287–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Altinok T, Baysal O, Karakas HM, et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Radiol. 2004;59:916–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wong SM, Griffith JF, Hui AC, et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnostic usefulness of sonography. Radiology. 2004;232:93–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mohammadi A, Afshar A, Etemadi A, et al. Diagnostic value of cross-sectional area of median nerve in grading severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. Arch Iran Med. 2010;13:516–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ziswiler HR, Reichenbach S, Vogelin E, et al. Diagnostic value of sonography in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:304–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tai TW, Wu CY, Su FC, et al. Ultrasonography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012;38(7):1121–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Klauser AS, Halpern EJ, Faschingbauer R, et al. Bifid median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome: assessment with US cross-sectional area measurement. Radiology. 2011;259:808–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Peer S, Gruber H, Loizides A. Sonography of carpal tunnel syndrome: why, when and how. Imaging Med. 2012;4(3):287–97.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mallouhi A, Pülzl P, Trieb T, et al. Predictors of carpal tunnel syndrome: accuracy of gray-scale and color Doppler sonography. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(5):1240–5.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ghasemi-Esfe AR, Khalilzadeh O, Vaziri-Bozorg SM, et al. Color and power Doppler US for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome and determining its severity: a quantitative image processing method. Radiology. 2011;261(2):499–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mhoon J, Juel V, Hobson-Webb LD. Median nerve ultrasound as screening tool in carpal tunnel syndrome: correlation of cross-sectional area measures with electrodiagnostic abnormality. Muscle Nerve. 2012;46:871–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kele H, Verheggen R, Bittermann HJ, et al. The potential value of ultrasonography in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology. 2003;61(3):389–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Schmidt H-M. Chirurgische Anatomie des Karpaltunnels. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2006;38:283–95 (German).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Vossen S, Moehlen-Albrecht S, Steffens KJ. Reintervention after endoscopic surgery of the carpal tunnel syndrome. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2007;39(4):293–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Tan TC, Yeo CJ, Smith EW. High definition ultrasound as diagnostic adjunct for incomplete carpal tunnel release. Hand Surg. 2011;16(3):289–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Peer S, Bodner G, Meirer R, Willeit J, Piza-Katzer H. Examination of postoperative peripheral nerve lesions with high-resolution sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177(2):415–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Schelle T, Schneider W. Ist der hochauflösende Ultraschall des N. medianus vor einer Karpaltunnel - Rezidivoperation hilfreich? Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2011;43(05):313–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Guggenberger R, Markovic D, Eppenberger P, Chhabra A, Schiller A, Nanz D, Prüssmann K, Andreisek G. Radiology. 2012;265(1):194–203. Epub 2012 Jul 19.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Spinner M, Kaplan EB. The relationship of the ulnar nerve to the medial intermuscular septum in the arm and its clinical significance. Hand. 1976;8(3):239–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Stewart JD. Focal peripheral neuropathies. New York: Elsevier; 1987. p. 168–85.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM). Practice parameter for electrodiagnostic studies in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: summary statement. Muscle Nerve. 1999;22(3):408–11.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Todnem K, Michler RP, Wader TE, Engstrøm M, Sand T. The impact of extended electrodiagnostic studies in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. BMC Neurol. 2009;9:52.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Assmus H, Antoniadis G, Bischoff C, Hoffmann R, Martini A-K, Preißler P, Scheglmann K, Schwerdtfeger K, Wessels KD, Wüstner-Hofmann M. Cubital tunnel syndrome – a review and management guidelines. Cen Eur Neurosurg. 2011;72:90–8.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Landau ME, Diaz MI, Barner KC, Campbell WW. Changes in nerve conduction velocity across the elbow due to experimental error. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(6):838–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Sattari S, Emad M. Changes in ulnar nerve conduction velocity across the elbow in different angles of elbow flexion. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;47(7–8):373–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Eliaspour D, Sedighipour L, Hedayati-Moghaddam MR, Rayegani SM, Bahrami MH, Roghani RS. The pattern of muscle involvement in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Neurol India. 2012;60(1):36–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Volpe A, Rossato G, Bottanelli M. Ultrasound evaluation of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: correlation with electrophysiological studies. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(9):1098–101.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gruber H, Glodny B, Peer S. The validity of ultrasonographic assessment in cubital tunnel syndrome: the value of a cubital-to-humeral nerve area ratio (CHR) combined with morphologic features. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010;36(3):376–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Beekman R, Van Der Plas JP, Uitdehaag BM, Schellens RL, Visser LH. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and sonographic studies in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Muscle Nerve. 2004;30(2):202–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Filippou G, Mondelli M, Greco G, Bertoldi I, Frediani B, Galeazzi M, Giannini F. Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: how frequent is the idiopathic form? An ultrasonographic study in a cohort of patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28(1):63–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Shimizu H, Beppu M, Arai T, Kihara H, Izumiyama K. Ultrasonographic findings in cubital tunnel syndrome caused by a cubitus varus deformity. Hand Surg. 2011;16(3):233–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Beekman R, van den Berg LH, Franssen H, Visser LH, van Asseldonk JT, Wokke JH. Ultrasonography shows extensive nerve enlargements in multifocal motor neuropathy. Neurology. 2005;65(2):305–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Cartwright MS, Brown ME, Eulitt P, Walker FO, Lawson VH, Caress JB. Diagnostic nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40(1):98–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Imamura K, Tajiri Y, Kowa H, Nakashima K. Peripheral nerve hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy detected by ultrasonography. Intern Med. 2009;48(7):581–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Bäumer P, Dombert T, Staub F, Kaestel T, Bartsch AJ, Heiland S, Bendszus M, Pham M. Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: MR neurography-nerve T2 signal increase and caliber. Radiology. 2011;260(1):199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Gröner H, Biemer E. The endoscopic decompression of the ulnar nerve technique and indication. In: Frey M, editor. Endoscopy and microsurgery. Wien: Springer; 2001. p. 59–66.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Dellon AL. Operative technique for submuscular transposition of the ulnar nerve. Contemp Orthop. 1988;16:17–24.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kline DG, Hudson AR, Kim DH. Atlas of peripheral nerve surgery. Philadelphia; Saunders 2001; p. 78–83.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Sunderland S. Blood supply of peripheral nerves. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1945;54:280–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Broudy AS, Leffert RD, Smith RJ. Technical problems with the ulnar nerve transposition at the elbow: findings and results of reoperation. J Hand Surg. 1978;3(1):85–9.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Stewart JD. Focal peripheral neuropathies. New York: Elsevier; 1987. p. 185–9.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sälgeback S. Ulnar tunnel syndromes caused by anomalous muscles. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1977;11:255–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Nucci F, Artico M, Antonini G, Millefiorini M, Bastianello S, Bozzao L. Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon’s canal caused by a giant cell tumor. Zentralbl Neurochir. 1989;50:196–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Conrad B, Bischoff C, Das EMG-Buch Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, 1st ed. New York: 1997. p. 74–7 (German).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Stöhr M. Atlas der klinischen Elektromyographie und Neurographie. Kohlhammer Verlag Stuttgart, 4. Auflage 1998; p. 213 (German).Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Yemisci OU, Yalbuzdag SA, Cosar SN, Oztop P, Karatas M. Ulnar nerve conduction abnormalities in carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2011;44(3):352–7. doi: 10.1002/mus.22046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Mondelli M, Ginanneschi F, Rossi A. Evidence of improvement in distal conduction of ulnar nerve sensory fibers after carpal tunnel release. Neurosurgery. 2009;65(4):696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Pearce C, Feinberg J, Wolfe SW. Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist. HSS J. 2009;5(2):180–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Gandolfo N, Valle M, Simonetti S, Derchi LE. US of nerve entrapments in osteofibrous tunnels of the upper and lower limbs. Radiographics. 2000;20 Spec No:199–213; discussion 213–7.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Bayrak AO, Bayrak IK, Turker H, Elmali M, Nural MS. Ultrasonography in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: comparison of cross-sectional area and swelling ratio with electrophysiological severity. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41(5):661–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Lotem M, Gloobe H, Nathan H. Fibrotic arch around the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973;52(5):553–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Mc Farcane RM, Mayer JR, Hugill JV. Further observations on the anatomy of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Hand. 1976;8(2):115–7.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Howard FM. Ulnar-nerve palsy in wrist fracture. J Bone Joint Surg. 1961;43A(8):1197–201.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Fenning JB. Deep ulnar-nerve paralysis resulting from anatomical abnormality. J Bone Joint Surg. 1965;47-A(7):1381–2.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Wissinger HA. Resection of the hook of the hamate. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975;56(5):501–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Böhm
    • 1
  • Götz Penkert
    • 2
  • Thomas Schelle
    • 3
  1. 1.Neurological DepartmentFreiberg HospitalFreibergGermany
  2. 2.Neurosurgical DepartmentFriederiken-HospitalHannoverGermany
  3. 3.Neurological DepartmentMunicipal Hospital DessauDessau-RosslauGermany

Personalised recommendations