Operation Modes of Battery Chargers for Electric Vehicles in the Future Smart Grids

  • Vítor Monteiro
  • João C. Ferreira
  • João L. Afonso
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 423)


This paper presents an on-board bidirectional battery charger for Electric Vehicles (EVs), which operates in three different modes: Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V), Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H). Through these three operation modes, using bidirectional communications based on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), it will be possible to exchange data between the EV driver and the future smart grids. This collaboration with the smart grids will strengthen the collective awareness systems, contributing to solve and organize issues related with energy resources and power grids. This paper presents the preliminary studies that results from a PhD work related with bidirectional battery chargers for EVs. Thus, in this paper is described the topology of the on board bidirectional battery charger and the control algorithms for the three operation modes. To validate the topology it was developed a laboratory prototype, and were obtained experimental results for the three operation modes.


Battery Charger Grid to Vehicle (G2V) Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Vehicle to Home (V2H) Electric Vehicles Smart Grids 


  1. 1.
    Boulanger, A.G., Chu, A.C., Maxx, S., Waltz, D.L.: Vehicle Electrification: Status and Issues. Proceedings of the IEEE 99(6), 1116–1138 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Camus, C., Farias, T.: Electric vehicles as a mean to reduce, energy, emissions and electricity costs. In: IEEE International Conference on the European Energy Market, pp. 1–8 (May 2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    International Energy Outlook 2009. U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC (May 2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dyke, K., Schofield, N., Barnes, M.: The Impact of Transport Electrification on Electrical Networks. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57, 3917–3926 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jian, L., Xue, H., Xu, G., Zhu, X., Zhao, D., Shao, Z.Y.: Regulated Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Minimizing Load Variance in Household Smart Micro-Grid. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 3218–3226 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clement-Nyns, K., Haesen, E., Driesen, J.: The impact of charging Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25, 371–380 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Basu, M., Gaughan, K., Coyle, E.: Harmonic distortion caused by EV battery chargers in the distribution systems network and its remedy. UPEC International Universities Power Engineering Conference, pp. 869–873 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monteiro, V., Ferreira, J.C., Meléndez, A.A.N., Afonso, J.L.: Electric Vehicles On-Board Battery Charger for the Future Smart Grids. In: Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Tomic, S., Graca, P. (eds.) Technological Innovation for the Internet of Things, ch. 38, 1st edn., pp. 351–358. Springer (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vítor Monteiro, H., Goncalves, J.L.: Afonso, “Impact of Electric Vehicles on power qual-ity in a Smart Grid context. In: IEEE EPQU 11th International Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, pp. 1–6 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haghbin, S., Lundmark, S., Alaküla, M., Carlson, O.: Grid-Connected Integrated Battery Chargers in Vehicle Applications: Review and New Solution. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 60(2), 459–473 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kramer, B., Chakraborty, S., Kroposki, B.: A review of plug-in vehicles and vehicle-to-grid capability. In: IECON 2008 - 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, pp. 2278–2283 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferreira, J.C., Santos, R., Monteiro, V., Afonso, J.L.: Cloud Collaborative Broker for Distributed Energy Resources. In: IEEE Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, Lisbon Portugal, June 19-22, vol. 1, pp. 33–40 (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Green Car Congress, Nissan to launch the “LEAF to Home. V2H power supply system with Nichicon” EV Power Station (June),
  14. 14.
    Meliopoulos, A., Cokkinides, G., Huang, R., Farantatos, E., Choi, S., Lee, Y., Yu, X.: Smart Grid Technologies for Autonomous Operation and Control. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 2(1) (March 2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sahin, D., Kocak, T., Ergut, S., Buccella, C., Cecati, C., Hancke, G.P.: Smart Grid and Smart Homes: Key Players and Pilot Projects. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine 6, 18–34 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vítor Monteiro
    • 1
  • João C. Ferreira
    • 1
  • João L. Afonso
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro AlgoritmiUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations