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Polarisation Vision of Fishes

  • Nicholas William RobertsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Vision Research book series (SSVR, volume 2)

Abstract

Since the first edition of this book, our understanding of vertebrate polarisation vision has increased significantly. Much of this work has concentrated on a number of species of fish, and the aim of this updated chapter is to highlight some of the new discoveries and new directions this area of animal polarisation vision has seen. Three distinctive research directions stand out and form the main sections of this chapter update: (1) mechanisms of polarisation sensitivity, (2) neural processing of polarisation information and (3) behavioural evidence of polarisation vision and associated visual ecology. The new additions to this chapter bring together work on molecular mechanisms of dichroism in cone photoreceptors and new evidence that questions the original measures of the levels of diffusion of the visual pigment in outer segment membranes. Advances in our understanding of how intra-retinal feedback influences the neural coding of polarisation information are also considered. Finally, several studies into the ability of fish to react to dynamic polarisation-based stimuli are also presented in conjunction with evidence that some fish also manipulate the degree of polarisation in the light that they reflect. However, it is still clear that this area of research lacks depth in much of the evidence, leaving many questions still wide open for future studies.

Keywords

Atlantic Salmon Outer Segment Visual Pigment Horizontal Cell Double Cone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

71484_2_En_9_MOESM1_ESM.zip (4.4 mb)
Colour Version of Fig. 9.1 The retinal specialisation in the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. (a) The right eye with the arrows D and T depicting the dorsal and temporal directions, respectively (scale bar = 2.2 mm). (b) Cone densities [×103 mm−2] across the retina (top number), and percentage packing (bottom number). (c, d, e, f) Schematic of the cone type distributions in the retina colour matched with cartoons of the cone morphology. (g) The anchovy long cones with vertically oriented lamellae (scale bar = 5 μm). Note that the base of the outer segment is laterally displaced towards the temporal side of the inner segment (double black arrowheads). (h) Higher magnification view of the vertically orientated lamellae from a long cone outer segments (scale bar = 0.5 μm). At this level, the black arrowhead shows the closed ends of the lamellae on the right (temporal) side of the outer segment. On the other side (white arrow head) the membranes run parallel to the plasma membrane. (i) Confocal images from whole-mount retina showing opsin expression in the rows of alternating long and short (bilobed) cones. The outer segments of long cones label with two types of M/LWS opsin antibodies (dark grey colour), but the bilobed outer segments label exclusively with the mouse rod opsin antibody (light grey colour) [adapted from Novales-Flamarique (2011)] (TIFF 12152 kb)
71484_2_En_9_MOESM2_ESM.zip (487 kb)
Colour Version of Fig. 9.2 Rhodopsin dimerisation in photoreceptor membranes. (a) Atomic force microscopy image of rod outer segment discs illustrating the homodimer ordering of rhodopsin into a paracrystalline array. Insets are X-ray diffraction profiles with the peaks detailing the protein–protein interaction distances [adapted from Fotiadis et al. (2003)]. (b) Similar evidence of phase separation in the plane of the discs taken by a transmission electron microscope [adapted from Corless et al. (1994)]. (c) A calculated top view of a photoactivated rhodopsin dimer taken from the cytoplasmic side. This cytoplasmic surface of photoactivated rhodopsin, Rho*, and rhodopsin, Rho, interacts with the G protein transducin [adapted from Palczewski (2006)] (TIFF 15658 kb)
71484_2_En_9_MOESM3_ESM.zip (4.1 mb)
Colour Version of Fig. 9.6 Weakly polarising guanine-based multilayer reflectors in fish. (a) Measurements of the degree of polarisation at λ = 600 nm for azimuthal (dorsoventral; grey cardinal crosses) angles of illumination from Clupea harengus. Solid grey line is a parametric best fit for multilayer model with a mixture of 75 % Type 1 and 25 % Type 2 crystals. The model explained 95 % of the variation in the data, assessed by the R 2 from linear regression. There was no systematic difference between model and data (mean pairwise difference and standard deviation = 0.0044 ± 0.0132, t = 0.7512, d.f. = 9, p = 0.472). The best fit parameters are N = 37 crystal layers in each multilayer structure, with sampling intervals for guanine and cytoplasm thicknesses of [55, 110] nm and [30, 300] nm, respectively. Black solid circles and black line represent a positive control and are experimental data and a theoretical curve for a double surface Fresnel reflection (front and back reflection) from a glass microscope slide with a refractive index of 1.5, in air. (b) Schematic illustrating the multilayer model used and the two populations of guanine crystals: Type 1 crystals (dark grey) and Type 2 crystals (light grey). The orientation of the principle refractive indices’ coordinate axes in each crystal layer are indicated [adapted from Jordan et al. (2012)] (TIFF 12566 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bristol Life Science BuildingUniversity of BristolBristolUK

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