Advertisement

Structural and Functional Brain Imaging in Borderline, Antisocial, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

  • Lars SchulzeEmail author
  • Stefan RoepkeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to present main functional and structural brain findings from the neuroscientific study of personality disorder. In particular, this chapter will focus on borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. First, findings from individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) will be reviewed to highlight neural underpinnings of major psychopathological domains in BPD, i.e., processing and regulation of emotions, self-injurious behavior and pain processing, as well as interpersonal disturbances. Second, abnormalities of specific brain structures and functional networks of individuals with antisocial behavior and traits of psychopathy will be presented. Finally, we will discuss the few studies available from the neurobiological study of narcissistic personality disorder.

Keywords

Borderline Personality Disorder Anterior Cingulate Cortex Antisocial Behavior Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACC

Anterior cingulate cortex

BOLD

Blood oxygenation level dependant

BPD

Borderline personality disorder

CSP

Cavum septum pellucidum

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

GM

Gray matter

NPD

Narcissistic personality disorder

OFC

Orbitofrontal cortex

PCL-R

Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

PET

Positron emission tomography

PFC

Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

PPI

Psychopathic Personality Inventory

PTSD

Posttraumatic stress disorder

SPECT

Single-photon emission computed tomography

VBM

Voxel-based morphometry

References

  1. Akhtar S, Thomson JA Jr (1982) Overview: narcissistic personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 139:12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amaral DG, Behniea H, Kelly JL (2003) Topographic organization of projections from the amygdala to the visual cortex in the macaque monkey. Neuroscience 118:1099–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson NE, Kiehl KA (2012) The psychopath magnetized: insights from brain imaging. Trends Cogn Sci 16:52–60PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson SW, Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Damasio AR (1999) Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 2:1032–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansell EB, Sanislow CA, McGlashan TH, Grilo CM (2007) Psychosocial impairment and treatment utilization by patients with borderline personality disorder, other personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, and a healthy comparison group. Compr Psychiatry 48:329–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arntz A, Haaf JT (2012) Social cognition in borderline personality disorder: evidence for dichotomous thinking but no evidence for less complex attributions. Behav Res Ther 50:707–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arntz A, Veen G (2001) Evaluations of others by borderline patients. J Nerv Ment Dis 189:513–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arntz A, Appels C, Sieswerda S (2000) Hypervigilance in borderline disorder: a test with the emotional Stroop paradigm. J Pers Disord 14:366–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Augustine JR (1996) Circuitry and functional aspects of the insular lobe in primates including humans. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 22:229–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandelow B, Schmahl C, Falkai P, Wedekind D (2010) Borderline personality disorder: a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system? Psychol Rev 117:623–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Banks SJ, Eddy KT, Angstadt M, Nathan PJ, Phan KL (2007) Amygdala-frontal connectivity during emotion regulation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2:303–312PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbas H, Saha S, Rempel-Clower N, Ghashghaei T (2003) Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression. BMC Neurosci 4:25PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnow S, Stopsack M, Grabe HJ, Meinke C, Spitzer C, Kronmuller K, Sieswerda S (2009) Interpersonal evaluation bias in borderline personality disorder. Behav Res Ther 47:359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S (2004) The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. J Autism Dev Disord 34:163–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bateman A, Fonagy P (2008) 8-year follow-up of patients treated for borderline personality disorder: mentalization-based treatment versus treatment as usual. Am J Psychiatry 165:631–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beblo T, Driessen M, Mertens M, Wingenfeld K, Piefke M, Rullkoetter N, Silva-Saavedra A, Mensebach C, Reddemann L, Rau H, Markowitsch HJ, Wulff H, Lange W, Berea C, Ollech I, Woermann FG (2006) Functional MRI correlates of the recall of unresolved life events in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 36:845–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bender DS, Dolan RT, Skodol AE, Sanislow CA, Dyck IR, McGlashan TH, Shea MT, Zanarini MC, Oldham JM, Gunderson JG (2001) Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 158:295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Berenson KR, Downey G, Rafaeli E, Coifman KG, Paquin NL (2011) The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 120:681–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Berkowitz L (1993) Aggression: its causes, consequences and control. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Birbaumer N, Veit R, Lotze M, Erb M, Hermann C, Grodd W, Flor H (2005) Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:799–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blair RJ (2005) Responding to the emotions of others: dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Conscious Cogn 14:698–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blair RJ (2010) Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:76–82PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blais MA, Hilsenroth MJ, Castlebury FD (1997) Content validity of the DSM-IV borderline and narcissistic personality disorder criteria sets. Compr Psychiatry 38:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bland AR, Williams CA, Scharer K, Manning S (2004) Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. Issues Ment Health Nurs 25:655–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blasco-Fontecilla H, Baca-Garcia E, Dervic K, Perez-Rodriguez MM, Lopez-Castroman J, Saiz-Ruiz J, Oquendo MA (2009) Specific features of suicidal behavior in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 70:1583–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Blumer D, Benson DF (1975) Personality changes with frontal and temporal lesion. In: Benson DF, Blumer D (eds) Psychiatric aspects of neurological disease. Stratton, New York, pp 151–169Google Scholar
  27. Boccardi M, Ganzola R, Rossi R, Sabattoli F, Laakso MP, Repo-Tiihonen E, Vaurio O, Kononen M, Aronen HJ, Thompson PM, Frisoni GB, Tiihonen J (2010) Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy. Hum Brain Mapp 31:438–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Boccardi M, Frisoni GB, Hare RD, Cavedo E, Najt P, Pievani M, Rasser PE, Laakso MP, Aronen HJ, Repo-Tiihonen E, Vaurio O, Thompson PM, Tiihonen J (2011) Cortex and amygdala morphology in psychopathy. Psychiatry Res 193:85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bohus M, Limberger M, Ebner U, Glocker FX, Schwarz B, Wernz M, Lieb K (2000) Pain perception during self-reported distress and calmness in patients with borderline personality disorder and self-mutilating behavior. Psychiatry Res 95:251–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brambilla P, Soloff PH, Sala M, Nicoletti MA, Keshavan MS, Soares JC (2004) Anatomical MRI study of borderline personality disorder patients. Psychiatry Res 131:125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown MZ, Comtois KA, Linehan MM (2002) Reasons for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in women with borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 111:198–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brunner R, Henze R, Parzer P, Kramer J, Feigl N, Lutz K, Essig M, Resch F, Stieltjes B (2010) Reduced prefrontal and orbitofrontal gray matter in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder: is it disorder specific? Neuroimage 49:114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Budhani S, Marsh AA, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2007) Neural correlates of response reversal: considering acquisition. Neuroimage 34:1754–1765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cardenas-Morales L, Fladung AK, Kammer T, Schmahl C, Plener PL, Connemann BJ, Schonfeldt-Lecuona C (2011) Exploring the affective component of pain perception during aversive stimulation in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 186:458–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carrasco JL, Tajima-Pozo K, Diaz-Marsa M, Casado A, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Arrazola J, Yus M (2012) Microstructural white matter damage at orbitofrontal areas in borderline personality disorder. J Affect Disord 139:149–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chapman AL, Gratz KL, Brown MZ (2006) Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: the experiential avoidance model. Behav Res Ther 44:371–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Clifton A, Pilkonis PA (2007) Evidence for a single latent class of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders borderline personality pathology. Compr Psychiatry 48:70–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Coccaro EF, McCloskey MS, Fitzgerald DA, Phan KL (2007) Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biol Psychiatry 62:168–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Craig MC, Catani M, Deeley Q, Latham R, Daly E, Kanaan R, Picchioni M, McGuire PK, Fahy T, Murphy DG (2009) Altered connections on the road to psychopathy. Mol Psychiatry 14:946–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Crowe SL, Blair RJ (2008) The development of antisocial behavior: what can we learn from functional neuroimaging studies? Dev Psychopathol 20:1145–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dannlowski U, Stuhrmann A, Beutelmann V, Zwanzger P, Lenzen T, Grotegerd D, Domschke K, Hohoff C, Ohrmann P, Bauer J, Lindner C, Postert C, Konrad C, Arolt V, Heindel W, Suslow T, Kugel H (2012) Limbic scars: long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biol Psychiatry 71:286–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Davidson RJ (2000) Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am Psychol 55:1196–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. de Greck M, Wang G, Yang X, Wang X, Northoff G, Han S (2012) Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7:135–144PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. de Oliveira-Souza R, Hare RD, Bramati IE, Garrido GJ, Azevedo Ignacio F, Tovar-Moll F, Moll J (2008) Psychopathy as a disorder of the moral brain: fronto-temporo-limbic grey matter reductions demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. Neuroimage 40:1202–1213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Decety J, Meyer M (2008) From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: a social developmental neuroscience account. Dev Psychopathol 20:1053–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dinsdale N, Crespi BJ (2013) The borderline empathy paradox: evidence and conceptual models for empathic enhancements in borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 27:172–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dolan MC, Fullam RS (2009) Psychopathy and functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses to emotional faces in violent patients with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 66:570–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dolan MC, Deakin JF, Roberts N, Anderson IM (2002) Quantitative frontal and temporal structural MRI studies in personality-disordered offenders and control subjects. Psychiatry Res 116:133–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Domes G, Winter B, Schnell K, Vohs K, Fast K, Herpertz SC (2006) The influence of emotions on inhibitory functioning in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 36:1163–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Domes G, Czieschnek D, Weidler F, Berger C, Fast K, Herpertz SC (2008) Recognition of facial affect in borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 22:135–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Domes G, Schulze L, Herpertz SC (2009) Emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder-a review of the literature. J Pers Disord 23:6–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Domes G, Schulze L, Bottger M, Grossmann A, Hauenstein K, Wirtz PH, Heinrichs M, Herpertz SC (2010) The neural correlates of sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Hum Brain Mapp 31:758–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Donegan NH, Sanislow CA, Blumberg HP, Fulbright RK, Lacadie C, Skudlarski P, Gore JC, Olson IR, McGlashan TH, Wexler BE (2003) Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional dysregulation. Biol Psychiatry 54:1284–1293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Driessen M, Herrmann J, Stahl K, Zwaan M, Meier S, Hill A, Osterheider M, Petersen D (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:1115–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. DSM-IV-TR (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC (Text Revision ed)Google Scholar
  56. Dyck M, Habel U, Slodczyk J, Schlummer J, Backes V, Schneider F, Reske M (2009) Negative bias in fast emotion discrimination in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 39:855–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dziobek I (2012) Towards a more ecologically valid assessment of empathy. Emot Rev 4:18–19Google Scholar
  58. Dziobek I, Fleck S, Kalbe E, Rogers K, Hassenstab J, Brand M, Kessler J, Woike JK, Wolf OT, Convit A (2006) Introducing MASC: a movie for the assessment of social cognition. J Autism Dev Disord 36:623–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dziobek I, Rogers K, Fleck S, Bahnemann M, Heekeren HR, Wolf OT, Convit A (2008) Dissociation of cognitive and emotional empathy in adults with Asperger syndrome using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). J Autism Dev Disord 38:464–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dziobek I, Preissler S, Grozdanovic Z, Heuser I, Heekeren HR, Roepke S (2011) Neuronal correlates of altered empathy and social cognition in borderline personality disorder. Neuroimage 57:539–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ebner-Priemer UW, Badeck S, Beckmann C, Wagner A, Feige B, Weiss I, Lieb K, Bohus M (2005) Affective dysregulation and dissociative experience in female patients with borderline personality disorder: a startle response study. J Psychiatr Res 39:85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ebner-Priemer UW, Welch SS, Grossman P, Reisch T, Linehan MM, Bohus M (2007) Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 150:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ebner-Priemer UW, Mauchnik J, Kleindienst N, Schmahl C, Peper M, Rosenthal MZ, Flor H, Bohus M (2009) Emotional learning during dissociative states in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 34:214–222PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Eftekhari A, Zoellner LA, Vigil SA (2009) Patterns of emotion regulation and psychopathology. Anxiety Stress Coping 22:571–586PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Eisenberg N, Miller PA (1987) The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychol Bull 101:91–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Enzi B, Doering S, Faber C, Hinrichs J, Bahmer J, Northoff G (2013) Reduced deactivation in reward circuitry and midline structures during emotion processing in borderline personality disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry 14:45–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ermer E, Cope LM, Nyalakanti PK, Calhoun VD, Kiehl KA (2012) Aberrant paralimbic gray matter in criminal psychopathy. J Abnorm Psychol 121:649–658PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fan Y, Duncan NW, de Greck M, Northoff G (2011a) Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:903–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fan Y, Wonneberger C, Enzi B, de Greck M, Ulrich C, Tempelmann C, Bogerts B, Doering S, Northoff G (2011b) The narcissistic self and its psychological and neural correlates: an exploratory fMRI study. Psychol Med 41:1641–1650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Fertuck EA, Lenzenweger MF, Clarkin JF, Hoermann S, Stanley B (2006) Executive neurocognition, memory systems, and borderline personality disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 26:346–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fertuck EA, Jekal A, Song I, Wyman B, Morris MC, Wilson ST, Brodsky BS, Stanley B (2009) Enhanced ‘reading the mind in the eyes’ in borderline personality disorder compared to healthy controls. Psychol Med 39:1979–1988PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fields H (2004) State-dependent opioid control of pain. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:565–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Finger EC, Marsh AA, Mitchell DG, Reid ME, Sims C, Budhani S, Kosson DS, Chen G, Towbin KE, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Blair JR (2008) Abnormal ventromedial prefrontal cortex function in children with psychopathic traits during reversal learning. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:586–594PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Finger EC, Marsh AA, Blair KS, Reid ME, Sims C, Ng P, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2011) Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits. Am J Psychiatry 168:152–162PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Flor H, Birbaumer N, Schulz R, Grusser SM, Mucha RF (2002) Pavlovian conditioning of opioid and nonopioid pain inhibitory mechanisms in humans. Eur J Pain 6:395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Frick PJ, Hare RD (2001) The Antisocial Process Screening Device (ASPD). Multi Health Systems, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  77. Frick C, Lang S, Kotchoubey B, Sieswerda S, Dinu-Biringer R, Berger M, Veser S, Essig M, Barnow S (2012) Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading. PLoS One 7:e41650PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Frith C, Frith U (2005) Theory of mind. Curr Biol 15:R644–R646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Giesen-Bloo J, van Dyck R, Spinhoven P, van Tilburg W, Dirksen C, van Asselt T, Kremers I, Nadort M, Arntz A (2006) Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:649–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Glenn CR, Klonsky ED (2009) Emotion dysregulation as a core feature of borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 23:20–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Glenn AL, Raine A, Schug RA (2009) The neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy. Mol Psychiatry 14:5–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gordon HL, Baird AA, End A (2004) Functional differences among those high and low on a trait measure of psychopathy. Biol Psychiatry 56:516–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Grant JE, Correia S, Brennan-Krohn T, Malloy PF, Laidlaw DH, Schulz SC (2007) Frontal white matter integrity in borderline personality disorder with self-injurious behavior. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 19:383–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gregory S, Ffytche D, Simmons A, Kumari V, Howard M, Hodgins S, Blackwood N (2012) The antisocial brain: psychopathy matters. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:962–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Grilo CM, McGlashan TH, Quinlan DM, Walker ML, Greenfeld D, Edell WS (1998) Frequency of personality disorders in two age cohorts of psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 155:140–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gross JJ (1998) Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. J Pers Soc Psychol 74:224–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gross JJ (2002) Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology 39:281–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gross JJ, John OP (2003) Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 85:348–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Guitart-Masip M, Pascual JC, Carmona S, Hoekzema E, Berge D, Perez V, Soler J, Soliva JC, Rovira M, Bulbena A, Vilarroya O (2009) Neural correlates of impaired emotional discrimination in borderline personality disorder: an fMRI study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:1537–1545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gunderson JG (2007) Disturbed relationships as a phenotype for borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164:1637–1640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gunderson JG, Zanarini MC, Kisiel C (1995) Borderline personality disorder. In: Widiger TA, Frances A, Pincus H, Ross R, First M, Davis W (eds) DSM-IV sourcebook. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 717–732Google Scholar
  92. Gunderson JG, Stout RL, McGlashan TH, Shea MT, Morey LC, Grilo CM, Zanarini MC, Yen S, Markowitz JC, Sanislow C, Ansell E, Pinto A, Skodol AE (2011) Ten-year course of borderline personality disorder: psychopathology and function from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:827–837PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hare RD (2003) The Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, 2nd edn. Multi-Health Systems, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  94. Hare RD (2006) Psychopathy: a clinical and forensic overview. Psychiatr Clin North Am 29:709–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Harenski CL, Kim SH, Hamann S (2009) Neuroticism and psychopathy predict brain activation during moral and nonmoral emotion regulation. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 9:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Harenski CL, Harenski KA, Shane MS, Kiehl KA (2010) Aberrant neural processing of moral violations in criminal psychopaths. J Abnorm Psychol 119:863–874PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Harlow JM (1868) Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Publ Mass Med Soc 2:327–347Google Scholar
  98. Hart SD, Cox DN, Hare RD (1995) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist — Revised Screening Version (PCL:SV). Toronto: Multi-Health SystemsGoogle Scholar
  99. Hazlett EA, New AS, Newmark R, Haznedar MM, Lo JN, Speiser LJ, Chen AD, Mitropoulou V, Minzenberg M, Siever LJ, Buchsbaum MS (2005) Reduced anterior and posterior cingulate gray matter in borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 58:614–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hazlett EA, Zhang J, New AS, Zelmanova Y, Goldstein KE, Haznedar MM, Meyerson D, Goodman M, Siever LJ, Chu KW (2012) Potentiated amygdala response to repeated emotional pictures in borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 72:448–456PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Herpertz SC (1995) Self-injurious behaviour. Psychopathological and nosological characteristics in subtypes of self-injurers. Acta Psychiatr Scand 91:57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Herpertz SC, Gretzer A, Steinmeyer EM, Muehlbauer V, Schuerkens A, Sass H (1997) Affective instability and impulsivity in personality disorder. Results of an experimental study. J Affect Disord 44:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Herpertz SC, Dietrich TM, Wenning B, Krings T, Erberich SG, Willmes K, Thron A, Sass H (2001) Evidence of abnormal amygdala functioning in borderline personality disorder: a functional MRI study. Biol Psychiatry 50:292–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Holmes SE, Slaughter JR, Kashani J (2001) Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 31:183–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hooker CI, Bruce L, Lincoln SH, Fisher M, Vinogradov S (2011) Theory of mind skills are related to gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 70:1169–1178PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jackson DC, Malmstadt JR, Larson CL, Davidson RJ (2000) Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology 37:515–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Jacob GA, Zvonik K, Kamphausen S, Sebastian A, Maier S, Philipsen A, Tebartz van Elst L, Lieb K, Tuscher O (2012) Emotional modulation of motor response inhibition in women with borderline personality disorder: an fMRI study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 37:120029Google Scholar
  108. Johansen M, Karterud S, Pedersen G, Gude T, Falkum E (2004) An investigation of the prototype validity of the borderline DSM-IV construct. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109:289–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Johnstone T, van Reekum CM, Urry HL, Kalin NH, Davidson RJ (2007) Failure to regulate: counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. J Neurosci 27:8877–8884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Jones AP, Laurens KR, Herba CM, Barker GJ, Viding E (2009) Amygdala hypoactivity to fearful faces in boys with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Am J Psychiatry 166:95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kalisch R (2009) The functional neuroanatomy of reappraisal: time matters. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:1215–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kamphausen S, Schroder P, Maier S, Bader K, Feige B, Kaller CP, Glauche V, Ohlendorf S, Elst LT, Kloppel S, Jacob GA, Silbersweig D, Lieb K, Tuscher O (2013) Medial prefrontal dysfunction and prolonged amygdala response during instructed fear processing in borderline personality disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry 14:307–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kanske P, Heissler J, Schonfelder S, Bongers A, Wessa M (2011) How to regulate emotion? Neural networks for reappraisal and distraction. Cereb Cortex 21:1379–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Karl A, Schaefer M, Malta LS, Dorfel D, Rohleder N, Werner A (2006) A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:1004–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kemperman I, Russ MJ, Shearin E (1997) Self-injurious behavior and mood regulation in borderline patients. J Pers Disord 11:146–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kernberg OF (1967) Borderline personality organization. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 15:641–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kernberg OF (1970) Factors in psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personalities. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 18:51–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kiehl KA (2006) A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Res 142:107–128PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kiehl KA, Smith AM, Hare RD, Mendrek A, Forster BB, Brink J, Liddle PF (2001) Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biol Psychiatry 50:677–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. King-Casas B, Chiu PH (2012) Understanding interpersonal function in psychiatric illness through multiplayer economic games. Biol Psychiatry 72:119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. King-Casas B, Sharp C, Lomax-Bream L, Lohrenz T, Fonagy P, Montague PR (2008) The rupture and repair of cooperation in borderline personality disorder. Science 321:806–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kleindienst N, Bohus M, Ludascher P, Limberger MF, Kuenkele K, Ebner-Priemer UW, Chapman AL, Reicherzer M, Stieglitz RD, Schmahl C (2008) Motives for nonsuicidal self-injury among women with borderline personality disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 196:230–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kleindienst N, Limberger MF, Ebner-Priemer UW, Keibel-Mauchnik J, Dyer A, Berger M, Schmahl C, Bohus M (2011) Dissociation predicts poor response to dialectial behavioral therapy in female patients with borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 25:432–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kliem S, Kroger C, Kosfelder J (2010) Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. J Consult Clin Psychol 78:936–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Klonsky ED (2007) The functions of deliberate self-injury: a review of the evidence. Clin Psychol Rev 27:226–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kober H, Barrett LF, Joseph J, Bliss-Moreau E, Lindquist K, Wager TD (2008) Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuroimage 42:998–1031PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Koenigs M, Baskin-Sommers A, Zeier J, Newman JP (2011) Investigating the neural correlates of psychopathy: a critical review. Mol Psychiatry 16:792–799PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Koenigsberg HW (2010) Affective instability: toward an integration of neuroscience and psychological perspectives. J Pers Disord 24:60–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Koenigsberg HW, Harvey PD, Mitropoulou V, New AS, Goodman M, Silverman J, Serby M, Schopick F, Siever LJ (2001) Are the interpersonal and identity disturbances in the borderline personality disorder criteria linked to the traits of affective instability and impulsivity? J Pers Disord 15:358–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Koenigsberg HW, Fan J, Ochsner KN, Liu X, Guise KG, Pizzarello S, Dorantes C, Guerreri S, Tecuta L, Goodman M, New A, Siever LJ (2009a) Neural correlates of the use of psychological distancing to regulate responses to negative social cues: a study of patients with borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 66:854–863PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Koenigsberg HW, Siever LJ, Lee H, Pizzarello S, New AS, Goodman M, Cheng H, Flory J, Prohovnik I (2009b) Neural correlates of emotion processing in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 172:192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Korzekwa MI, Dell PF, Links PS, Thabane L, Webb SP (2008) Estimating the prevalence of borderline personality disorder in psychiatric outpatients using a two-phase procedure. Compr Psychiatry 49:380–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kraus A, Esposito F, Seifritz E, Di Salle F, Ruf M, Valerius G, Ludaescher P, Bohus M, Schmahl C (2009) Amygdala deactivation as a neural correlate of pain processing in patients with borderline personality disorder and co-occurrent posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 65:819–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kraus A, Valerius G, Seifritz E, Ruf M, Bremner JD, Bohus M, Schmahl C (2010) Script-driven imagery of self-injurious behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder: a pilot FMRI study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 121:41–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Krause-Utz A, Oei NY, Niedtfeld I, Bohus M, Spinhoven P, Schmahl C, Elzinga BM (2012) Influence of emotional distraction on working memory performance in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 42:2181–2192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kuhlmann A, Bertsch K, Schmidinger I, Thomann PA, Herpertz SC (2012) Morphometric differences in central stress-regulating structures between women with and without borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 37:120039Google Scholar
  137. Laakso MP, Vaurio O, Koivisto E, Savolainen L, Eronen M, Aronen HJ, Hakola P, Repo E, Soininen H, Tiihonen J (2001) Psychopathy and the posterior hippocampus. Behav Brain Res 118:187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Laakso MP, Gunning-Dixon F, Vaurio O, Repo-Tiihonen E, Soininen H, Tiihonen J (2002) Prefrontal volumes in habitually violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder and type 2 alcoholism. Psychiatry Res 114:95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lamm C, Decety J, Singer T (2011) Meta-analytic evidence for common and distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for pain. Neuroimage 54:2492–2502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Land BB, Bruchas MR, Lemos JC, Xu M, Melief EJ, Chavkin C (2008) The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system. J Neurosci 28:407–414PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lang S, Kotchoubey B, Frick C, Spitzer C, Grabe HJ, Barnow S (2012) Cognitive reappraisal in trauma-exposed women with borderline personality disorder. Neuroimage 59:1727–1734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Lanius RA, Vermetten E, Loewenstein RJ, Brand B, Schmahl C, Bremner JD, Spiegel D (2010) Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. Am J Psychiatry 167:640–647PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lee TM, Chan SC, Raine A (2008) Strong limbic and weak frontal activation to aggressive stimuli in spouse abusers. Mol Psychiatry 13:655–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Leichsenring F, Leibing E, Kruse J, New AS, Leweke F (2011) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet 377:74–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lenzenweger MF, Lane MC, Loranger AW, Kessler RC (2007) DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry 62:553–564PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Levine D, Marziali E, Hood J (1997) Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 185:240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lieb K, Zanarini MC, Schmahl C, Linehan MM, Bohus M (2004) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet 364:453–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lilienfeld SO, Andrews BP (1996) Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations. J Pers Assess 66:488–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Linehan MM, Comtois KA, Murray AM, Brown MZ, Gallop RJ, Heard HL, Korslund KE, Tutek DA, Reynolds SK, Lindenboim N (2006) Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:757–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lis E, Greenfield B, Henry M, Guile JM, Dougherty G (2007) Neuroimaging and genetics of borderline personality disorder: a review. J Psychiatry Neurosci 32:162–173PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ludascher P, Bohus M, Lieb K, Philipsen A, Jochims A, Schmahl C (2007) Elevated pain thresholds correlate with dissociation and aversive arousal in patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 149:291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ludascher P, Greffrath W, Schmahl C, Kleindienst N, Kraus A, Baumgartner U, Magerl W, Treede RD, Bohus M (2009) A cross-sectional investigation of discontinuation of self-injury and normalizing pain perception in patients with borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 120:62–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ly M, Motzkin JC, Philippi CL, Kirk GR, Newman JP, Kiehl KA, Koenigs M (2012) Cortical thinning in psychopathy. Am J Psychiatry 169:743–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Lykken DT (1957) A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. J Abnorm Psychol 55:6–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lynch TR, Rosenthal MZ, Kosson DS, Cheavens JS, Lejuez CW, Blair RJ (2006) Heightened sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion in borderline personality disorder. Emotion 6:647–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Magerl W, Burkart D, Fernandez A, Schmidt LG, Treede RD (2012) Persistent antinociception through repeated self-injury in patients with borderline personality disorder. Pain 153:575–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Marinangeli MG, Butti G, Scinto A, Di Cicco L, Petruzzi C, Daneluzzo E, Rossi A (2000) Patterns of comorbidity among DSM-III-R personality disorders. Psychopathology 33:69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Marsh AA, Finger EC, Mitchell DG, Reid ME, Sims C, Kosson DS, Towbin KE, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2008) Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. Am J Psychiatry 165:712–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Marsh AA, Finger EC, Fowler KA, Jurkowitz IT, Schechter JC, Yu HH, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2011) Reduced amygdala-orbitofrontal connectivity during moral judgments in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits. Psychiatry Res 194:279–286PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McGlashan TH, Grilo CM, Sanislow CA, Ralevski E, Morey LC, Gunderson JG, Skodol AE, Shea MT, Zanarini MC, Bender D, Stout RL, Yen S, Pagano M (2005) Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders. Am J Psychiatry 162:883–889PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mechelli A, Price CJ, Friston KJ, Ashburner J (2005) Voxel-based morphometry of the human brain: methods and applications. Curr Med Imaging Rev 1:105–113Google Scholar
  162. Mehrabian A, Epstein N (1972) A measure of emotional empathy. J Pers 40:525–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Merkl A, Ammelburg N, Aust S, Roepke S, Reinecker H, Trahms L, Heuser I, Sander T (2010) Processing of visual stimuli in borderline personality disorder: a combined behavioural and magnetoencephalographic study. Int J Psychophysiol 78:257–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Mesulam M (2000) Brain, mind, and the evolution of connectivity. Brain Cogn 42:4–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Meyer B, Pilkonis PA, Beevers CG (2004) What’s in a (neutral) face? Personality disorders, attachment styles, and the appraisal of ambiguous social cues. J Pers Disord 18:320–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Miller JD, Campbell WK (2010) The case for using research on trait narcissism as a building block for understanding narcissistic personality disorder. Personal Disord Theory Res Treat 1:180–191Google Scholar
  167. Miller JD, Campbell WK, Pilkonis PA (2007) Narcissistic personality disorder: relations with distress and functional impairment. Compr Psychiatry 48:170–177PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Miller JD, Widiger TA, Campbell WK (2010) Narcissistic personality disorder and the DSM-V. J Abnorm Psychol 119:640–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Minzenberg MJ, Poole JH, Vinogradov S (2006) Social-emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry 47:468–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Minzenberg MJ, Fan J, New AS, Tang CY, Siever LJ (2007) Fronto-limbic dysfunction in response to facial emotion in borderline personality disorder: an event-related fMRI study. Psychiatry Res 155:231–243PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Minzenberg MJ, Poole JH, Vinogradov S (2008) A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance. Dev Psychopathol 20:341–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Moffitt TE (2005) Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behaviors: evidence from behavioral-genetic research. Adv Genet 55:41–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Motzkin JC, Newman JP, Kiehl KA, Koenigs M (2011) Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy. J Neurosci 31:17348–17357PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Müller JL, Sommer M, Wagner V, Lange K, Taschler H, Roder CH, Schuierer G, Klein HE, Hajak G (2003) Abnormalities in emotion processing within cortical and subcortical regions in criminal psychopaths: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using pictures with emotional content. Biol Psychiatry 54:152–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Muller JL, Ganssbauer S, Sommer M, Dohnel K, Weber T, Schmidt-Wilcke T, Hajak G (2008) Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Res 163:213–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Murphy FC, Nimmo-Smith I, Lawrence AD (2003) Functional neuroanatomy of emotions: a meta-analysis. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3:207–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Murray J, Farrington DP (2010) Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: key findings from longitudinal studies. Can J Psychiatry 55:633–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. New AS, Stanley B (2010) An opioid deficit in borderline personality disorder: self-cutting, substance abuse, and social dysfunction. Am J Psychiatry 167:882–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. New AS, Goodman M, Triebwasser J, Siever LJ (2008) Recent advances in the biological study of personality disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 31:441–461, viiPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Niedtfeld I, Schmahl C (2009) Emotion regulation and pain in borderline personality disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rev 5:48–54Google Scholar
  181. Niedtfeld I, Schulze L, Kirsch P, Herpertz SC, Bohus M, Schmahl C (2010) Affect regulation and pain in borderline personality disorder: a possible link to the understanding of self-injury. Biol Psychiatry 68:383–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Niedtfeld I, Kirsch P, Schulze L, Herpertz SC, Bohus M, Schmahl C (2012) Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in borderline personality disorder. PLoS One 7:e33293PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Nunes PM, Wenzel A, Borges KT, Porto CR, Caminha RM, de Oliveira IR (2009) Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis. J Pers Disord 23:333–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ochsner KN, Gross JJ (2005) The cognitive control of emotion. Trends Cogn Sci 9:242–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Ochsner KN, Ray RD, Cooper JC, Robertson ER, Chopra S, Gabrieli JD, Gross JJ (2004) For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage 23:483–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Ochsner KN, Silvers JA, Buhle JT (2012) Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: a synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1251:E1–E24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Ottosson H, Ekselius L, Grann M, Kullgren G (2002) Cross-system concordance of personality disorder diagnoses of DSM-IV and diagnostic criteria for research of ICD-10. J Pers Disord 16:283–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Patrick CJ, Bradley MM, Lang PJ (1993) Emotion in the criminal psychopath: startle reflex modulation. J Abnorm Psychol 102:82–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Paus T (2005) Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence. Trends Cogn Sci 9:60–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Pincus AL, Lukowitsky MR (2010) Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:421–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Posner MI, Rothbart MK, Vizueta N, Thomas KM, Levy KN, Fossella J, Silbersweig D, Stern E, Clarkin J, Kernberg O (2003) An approach to the psychobiology of personality disorders. Dev Psychopathol 15:1093–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Prehn K, Schlagenhauf F, Schulze L, Berger C, Vohs K, Fleischer M, Hauenstein K, Keiper P, Domes G, Herpertz SC (2013a) Neural correlates of risk taking in violent criminal offenders characterized by emotional hypo- and hyper-reactivity. Soc Neurosci 8:136–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Prehn K, Schulze L, Rossmann S, Berger C, Vohs K, Fleischer M, Hauenstein K, Keiper P, Domes G, Herpertz SC (2013b) Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry 14:71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Preissler S, Dziobek I, Ritter K, Heekeren HR, Roepke S (2010) Social cognition in borderline personality disorder: evidence for disturbed recognition of the emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others. Front Behav Neurosci 4:182PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Price JL (2003) Comparative aspects of amygdala connectivity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 985:50–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Prossin AR, Love TM, Koeppe RA, Zubieta JK, Silk KR (2010) Dysregulation of regional endogenous opioid function in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 167:925–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pujol J, Batalla I, Contreras-Rodriguez O, Harrison BJ, Pera V, Hernandez-Ribas R, Real E, Bosa L, Soriano-Mas C, Deus J, Lopez-Sola M, Pifarre J, Menchon JM, Cardoner N (2012) Breakdown in the brain network subserving moral judgment in criminal psychopathy. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7:917–923PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Raine A (2002) Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: a review. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30:311–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Raine A, Buchsbaum M, LaCasse L (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biol Psychiatry 42:495–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, LaCasse L, Colletti P (2000) Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Raine A, Lencz T, Taylor K, Hellige JB, Bihrle S, Lacasse L, Lee M, Ishikawa S, Colletti P (2003) Corpus callosum abnormalities in psychopathic antisocial individuals. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:1134–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Raine A, Lee L, Yang Y, Colletti P (2010) Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. Br J Psychiatry 197:186–192PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Reitz S, Krause-Utz A, Pogatzki-Zahn EM, Ebner-Priemer U, Bohus M, Schmahl C (2012) Stress regulation and incision in borderline personality disorder–a pilot study modeling cutting behavior. J Pers Disord 26:605–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Rentrop M, Backenstrass M, Jaentsch B, Kaiser S, Roth A, Unger J, Weisbrod M, Renneberg B (2008) Response inhibition in borderline personality disorder: performance in a Go/Nogo task. Psychopathology 41:50–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Rilling JK, Glenn AL, Jairam MR, Pagnoni G, Goldsmith DR, Elfenbein HA, Lilienfeld SO (2007) Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy. Biol Psychiatry 61:1260–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Ritter K, Roepke S, Merkl A, Heuser I, Fydrich T, Lammers CH (2010) Comorbidity in patients with narcissistic personality disorder in comparison to patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 60:14–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Ritter K, Dziobek I, Preissler S, Ruter A, Vater A, Fydrich T, Lammers CH, Heekeren HR, Roepke S (2011) Lack of empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 187:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Roepke S, Vater A, Preissler S, Heekeren H, Dziobek I (2012) Social cognition in borderline personality disorder. Front Neurosci 6Google Scholar
  209. Rolls ET (2000) The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cereb Cortex 10:284–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Ronningstam EF (2010) Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Ronningstam EF (2011) Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-V–in support of retaining a significant diagnosis. J Pers Disord 25:248–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Ronningstam EF, Weinberg I, Maltsberger JT (2008) Eleven deaths of Mr. K.: contributing factors to suicide in narcissistic personalities. Psychiatry 71:169–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rosenthal MZ, Gratz KL, Kosson DS, Cheavens JS, Lejuez CW, Lynch TR (2008) Borderline personality disorder and emotional responding: a review of the research literature. Clin Psychol Rev 28:75–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Ruocco AC, Amirthavasagam S, Zakzanis KK (2012) Amygdala and hippocampal volume reductions as candidate endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Psychiatry Res 201:245–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rusch N, van Elst LT, Ludaescher P, Wilke M, Huppertz HJ, Thiel T, Schmahl C, Bohus M, Lieb K, Hesslinger B, Hennig J, Ebert D (2003) A voxel-based morphometric MRI study in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Neuroimage 20:385–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rusch N, Weber M, Il’yasov KA, Lieb K, Ebert D, Hennig J, van Elst LT (2007) Inferior frontal white matter microstructure and patterns of psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroimage 35:738–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Rusch N, Bracht T, Kreher BW, Schnell S, Glauche V, Il’yasov KA, Ebert D, Lieb K, Hennig J, Saur D, van Elst LT (2010) Reduced interhemispheric structural connectivity between anterior cingulate cortices in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 181:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Russ MJ, Roth SD, Lerman A, Kakuma T, Harrison K, Shindledecker RD, Hull J, Mattis S (1992) Pain perception in self-injurious patients with borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 32:501–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Sala M, Caverzasi E, Lazzaretti M, Morandotti N, De Vidovich G, Marraffini E, Gambini F, Isola M, De Bona M, Rambaldelli G, d’Allio G, Barale F, Zappoli F, Brambilla P (2011) Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus sustain impulsivity and aggressiveness in borderline personality disorder. J Affect Disord 131:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Sanislow CA, Grilo CM, Morey LC, Bender DS, Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Shea MT, Stout RL, Zanarini MC, McGlashan TH (2002) Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. Am J Psychiatry 159:284–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Sato JR, de Araujo Filho GM, de Araujo TB, Bressan RA, de Oliveira PP, Jackowski AP (2012) Can neuroimaging be used as a support to diagnosis of borderline personality disorder? An approach based on computational neuroanatomy and machine learning. J Psychiatr Res 46:1126–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Schiffer B, Muller BW, Scherbaum N, Hodgins S, Forsting M, Wiltfang J, Gizewski ER, Leygraf N (2011) Disentangling structural brain alterations associated with violent behavior from those associated with substance use disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:1039–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Schmahl C, Vermetten E, Elzinga BM, Douglas Bremner J (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging of hippocampal and amygdala volume in women with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 122:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Schmahl C, Greffrath W, Baumgartner U, Schlereth T, Magerl W, Philipsen A, Lieb K, Bohus M, Treede RD (2004) Differential nociceptive deficits in patients with borderline personality disorder and self-injurious behavior: laser-evoked potentials, spatial discrimination of noxious stimuli, and pain ratings. Pain 110:470–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Schmahl C, Bohus M, Esposito F, Treede RD, Di Salle F, Greffrath W, Ludaescher P, Jochims A, Lieb K, Scheffler K, Hennig J, Seifritz E (2006) Neural correlates of antinociception in borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:659–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Schmahl C, Berne K, Krause A, Kleindienst N, Valerius G, Vermetten E, Bohus M (2009) Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in patients with borderline personality disorder with or without posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 34:289–295PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schnell K, Herpertz SC (2007) Effects of dialectic-behavioral-therapy on the neural correlates of affective hyperarousal in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res 41:837–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Schulze L, Domes G, Kruger A, Berger C, Fleischer M, Prehn K, Schmahl C, Grossmann A, Hauenstein K, Herpertz SC (2011) Neuronal correlates of cognitive reappraisal in borderline patients with affective instability. Biol Psychiatry 69:564–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Schulze L, Domes G, Koppen D, Herpertz SC (2013a) Enhanced detection of emotional facial expressions in borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology 46:217–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schulze L, Dziobek I, Vater A, Heekeren HR, Bajbouj M, Renneberg B, Heuser I, Roepke S (2013b) Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res 47:1363–1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Scott LN, Levy KN, Adams RB Jr, Stevenson MT (2011) Mental state decoding abilities in young adults with borderline personality disorder traits. Personal Disord 2:98–112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Seres I, Unoka Z, Keri S (2009) The broken trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder. Neuroreport 20:388–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Sharp C, Pane H, Ha C, Venta A, Patel AB, Sturek J, Fonagy P (2011) Theory of mind and emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents with borderline traits. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:563–573.e1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Sierra M, Berrios GE (1998) Depersonalization: neurobiological perspectives. Biol Psychiatry 44:898–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Sieswerda S, Arntz A, Mertens I, Vertommen S (2007) Hypervigilance in patients with borderline personality disorder: specificity, automaticity, and predictors. Behav Res Ther 45:1011–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Silbersweig D, Clarkin JF, Goldstein M, Kernberg OF, Tuescher O, Levy KN, Brendel G, Pan H, Beutel M, Pavony MT, Epstein J, Lenzenweger MF, Thomas KM, Posner MI, Stern E (2007) Failure of frontolimbic inhibitory function in the context of negative emotion in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164:1832–1841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Singer T (2006) The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: review of literature and implications for future research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:855–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Pfohl B, Widiger TA, Livesley WJ, Siever LJ (2002) The borderline diagnosis I: psychopathology, comorbidity, and personality structure. Biol Psychiatry 51:936–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Soloff PH, Lynch KG, Kelly TM, Malone KM, Mann JJ (2000) Characteristics of suicide attempts of patients with major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder: a comparative study. Am J Psychiatry 157:601–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Soloff PH, Nutche J, Goradia D, Diwadkar V (2008) Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Res 164:223–236PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Soloff PH, Pruitt P, Sharma M, Radwan J, White R, Diwadkar VA (2012) Structural brain abnormalities and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res 46:516–525PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Sommer M, Sodian B, Dohnel K, Schwerdtner J, Meinhardt J, Hajak G (2010) In psychopathic patients emotion attribution modulates activity in outcome-related brain areas. Psychiatry Res 182:88–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Stanley B, Siever LJ (2010) The interpersonal dimension of borderline personality disorder: toward a neuropeptide model. Am J Psychiatry 167:24–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Stanley B, Sher L, Wilson S, Ekman R, Huang YY, Mann JJ (2010) Non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, endogenous opioids and monoamine neurotransmitters. J Affect Disord 124:134–140PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Sterzer P, Stadler C, Poustka F, Kleinschmidt A (2007) A structural neural deficit in adolescents with conduct disorder and its association with lack of empathy. Neuroimage 37:335–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Stiglmayr CE, Shapiro DA, Stieglitz RD, Limberger MF, Bohus M (2001) Experience of aversive tension and dissociation in female patients with borderline personality disorder – a controlled study. J Psychiatr Res 35:111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Stiglmayr CE, Grathwol T, Linehan MM, Ihorst G, Fahrenberg J, Bohus M (2005) Aversive tension in patients with borderline personality disorder: a computer-based controlled field study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111:372–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Goldstein RB, Chou SP, Huang B, Smith SM, Ruan WJ, Pulay AJ, Saha TD, Pickering RP, Grant BF (2008) Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 69:1033–1045PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Tebartz van Elst L, Hesslinger B, Thiel T, Geiger E, Haegele K, Lemieux L, Lieb K, Bohus M, Hennig J, Ebert D (2003) Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 54:163–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Tiihonen J, Rossi R, Laakso MP, Hodgins S, Testa C, Perez J, Repo-Tiihonen E, Vaurio O, Soininen H, Aronen HJ, Kononen M, Thompson PM, Frisoni GB (2008) Brain anatomy of persistent violent offenders: more rather than less. Psychiatry Res 163:201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Tragesser SL, Robinson RJ (2009) The role of affective instability and UPPS impulsivity in borderline personality disorder features. J Pers Disord 23:370–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Tragesser SL, Solhan M, Schwartz-Mette R, Trull TJ (2007) The role of affective instability and impulsivity in predicting future BPD features. J Pers Disord 21:603–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Treede RD, Kenshalo DR, Gracely RH, Jones AK (1999) The cortical representation of pain. Pain 79:105–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Trull TJ, Sher KJ, Minks-Brown C, Durbin J, Burr R (2000) Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: a review and integration. Clin Psychol Rev 20:235–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Trull TJ, Jahng S, Tomko RL, Wood PK, Sher KJ (2010) Revised NESARC personality disorder diagnoses: gender, prevalence, and comorbidity with substance dependence disorders. J Pers Disord 24:412–426PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Tsuchiya N, Adolphs R (2007) Emotion and consciousness. Trends Cogn Sci 11:158–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Unoka Z, Seres I, Aspan N, Bodi N, Keri S (2009) Trust game reveals restricted interpersonal transactions in patients with borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 23:399–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Unoka Z, Fogd D, Fuzy M, Csukly G (2011) Misreading the facial signs: specific impairments and error patterns in recognition of facial emotions with negative valence in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 189:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Van Dillen LF, Heslenfeld DJ, Koole SL (2009) Tuning down the emotional brain: an fMRI study of the effects of cognitive load on the processing of affective images. Neuroimage 45:1212–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Veit R, Flor H, Erb M, Hermann C, Lotze M, Grodd W, Birbaumer N (2002) Brain circuits involved in emotional learning in antisocial behavior and social phobia in humans. Neurosci Lett 328:233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Veit R, Lotze M, Sewing S, Missenhardt H, Gaber T, Birbaumer N (2010) Aberrant social and cerebral responding in a competitive reaction time paradigm in criminal psychopaths. Neuroimage 49:3365–3372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Vermeiren R, Deboutte D, Ruchkin V, Schwab-Stone M (2002) Antisocial behaviour and mental health. Findings from three communities. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 11:168–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Viding E, Fontaine NM, McCrory EJ (2012) Antisocial behaviour in children with and without callous-unemotional traits. J R Soc Med 105:195–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Volkow ND, Tancredi LR, Grant C, Gillespie H, Valentine A, Mullani N, Wang GJ, Hollister L (1995) Brain glucose metabolism in violent psychiatric patients: a preliminary study. Psychiatry Res 61:243–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Vollm BA, Zhao L, Richardson P, Clark L, Deakin JF, Williams S, Dolan MC (2009) A voxel-based morphometric MRI study in men with borderline personality disorder: preliminary findings. Crim Behav Ment Health 19:64–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna IA, Brunner R, Parzer P, Mundt C, Fiedler P, Resch F (2010) Attentional bias in later stages of emotional information processing in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology 43:25–32Google Scholar
  267. Wager TD, Davidson ML, Hughes BL, Lindquist MA, Ochsner KN (2008) Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron 59:1037–1050PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wagner AW, Linehan MM (1999) Facial expression recognition ability among women with borderline personality disorder: implications for emotion regulation? J Pers Disord 13:329–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Welch SS, Linehan MM, Sylvers P, Chittams J, Rizvi SL (2008) Emotional responses to self-injury imagery among adults with borderline personality disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 76:45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. White SF, Brislin S, Sinclair S, Fowler KA, Pope K, Blair RJ (2013) The relationship between large cavum septum pellucidum and antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits and psychopathy in adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 54:575–581PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Wingenfeld K, Rullkoetter N, Mensebach C, Beblo T, Mertens M, Kreisel S, Toepper M, Driessen M, Woermann FG (2009) Neural correlates of the individual emotional Stroop in borderline personality disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:571–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Yang Y, Raine A (2009) Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res 174:81–88PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Yang Y, Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, Lacasse L, Colletti P (2005) Prefrontal white matter in pathological liars. Br J Psychiatry 187:320–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Yang Y, Raine A, Colletti P, Toga AW, Narr KL (2010) Morphological alterations in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala in unsuccessful psychopaths. J Abnorm Psychol 119:546–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Yang Y, Raine A, Colletti P, Toga AW, Narr KL (2011) Abnormal structural correlates of response perseveration in individuals with psychopathy. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 23:107–110PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Yen S, Shea MT, Sanislow CA, Grilo CM, Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, McGlashan TH, Zanarini MC, Morey LC (2004) Borderline personality disorder criteria associated with prospectively observed suicidal behavior. Am J Psychiatry 161:1296–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Khera GS, Bleichmar J (2001) Treatment histories of borderline inpatients. Compr Psychiatry 42:144–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Hennen J, Reich DB, Silk KR (2005) Psychosocial functioning of borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects followed prospectively for six years. J Pers Disord 19:19–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Reich DB, Fitzmaurice G, Weinberg I, Gunderson JG (2008) The 10-year course of physically self-destructive acts reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects. Acta Psychiatr Scand 117:177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Zetzsche T, Frodl T, Preuss UW, Schmitt G, Seifert D, Leinsinger G, Born C, Reiser M, Moller HJ, Meisenzahl EM (2006) Amygdala volume and depressive symptoms in patients with borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 60:302–310PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyCharité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations