Noninvasive Detection of Filaggrin Molecules by Raman Spectroscopy
The Raman effect consists of a shift in photon energy due to inelastic collisions of photons with molecules. These wavelength shifts are unique for each molecule, and they provide a fingerprint of the molecular structure of the sample that can be used to identify the material that is being analyzed, providing a noninvasive method to detect substances with clinical relevance. In the particular case of detecting filaggrin, Raman spectroscopy has been used successfully to characterize this molecule, and measurements have been successfully correlated to filaggrin-related diseases. In this chapter, the basic theory behind Raman spectroscopy is presented along with the instrumentation needed to perform Raman spectroscopy in a clinical setting and some of the recent work on using Raman spectroscopy to detect filaggrin-related skin conditions.
KeywordsRaman Spectrum Raman Spectroscopy Atopic Dermatitis Stratum Corneum Reference Spectrum
The author would like to acknowledge the work of Dr. Benjamín Moncada and the Dermatology Department at the “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto” Central Hospital (San Luis Potosi, Mexico), where most of the clinical work was performed. Also, the author would like to acknowledge the valuable collaboration of Dr. Victor Saavedra-Alanís, who performed the filaggrin genotyping; Dr. Javier Alda from the University Complutense of Madrid and Dr. Miguel G. Ramírez-Elías, who performed most of the principal component analysis; and Dr. Edgar Briones, who made the figures for this chapter.
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