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Vascular Dementia

  • Hee Jin Kim
  • Cindy W. Yoon
  • Byoung Seok Ye
  • Eun-Joo Kim
  • Sang Won Seo
  • Jee H. Jeong
  • Duk L. Na
Chapter

Abstract

Vascular dementia (VaD) is a cognitive syndrome associated with cerebrovascular disease and clinically relevant ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions. It represents a group of disorders of heterogeneity, encompassing strategic infarct dementia, multi-infarct dementia, and subcortical vascular dementia. Brain lesions arising from vascular insult and subsequent clinical symptoms of patients with VaD are related to regional hypometabolism or ischemia/hypoperfusion. These can be diagnosed and measured using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. In this chapter, we describe characteristics of PET and SPECT that are associated with clinical phenotypes in strategic infarct dementia, multi-infarct dementia, and subcortical vascular dementia.

Keywords

Positron Emission Tomography White Matter Hyperintensities Oxygen Extraction Fraction Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography Thalamic Infarction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviation

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ADRVCL

Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

CARASIL

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

FDG

Fluorodeoxyglucose

HMPAO

Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime

IMP

123I-isopropylamphetamine

MID

Multi-infarct dementia

MMSE

Mini-mental state examination

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NINDS-AIREN

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and The Association Internationale pour la Recherche at L’Enseignement en Neurosciences

OEF

Oxygen extraction fraction

PET

Positron emission tomography

PIB

Pittsburgh compound B

rCMRO2

Regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen

SID

Strategic infarct dementia

SPECT

Single-photon emission computed tomography

SVaD

Subcortical vascular dementia

SVCI

Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment

svMCI

Subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment

VaD

Vascular dementia

WMH

White matter hyperintensities

Notes

Funding/Support

This study was supported by grants from Samsung Medical Center Clinical Research Development Program (CRL-108011 and CRS 110-14-1) and by the Converging Research Center Program through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010K001054).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hee Jin Kim
    • 1
  • Cindy W. Yoon
    • 3
  • Byoung Seok Ye
    • 2
  • Eun-Joo Kim
    • 4
  • Sang Won Seo
    • 1
  • Jee H. Jeong
    • 5
  • Duk L. Na
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologySamsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan, University School of MedicineGangnam-gu, SeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeodaemun-gu, SeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyInha University School of MedicineShinheungdong, IncheonKorea
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyMedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of MedicineSeo-gu, BusanRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyEwha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of MedicineYangcheongku, SeoulRepublic of Korea

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