Rare and Secondary Tumors of the Kidney and Renal Pseudotumors

  • Annelies RappaportEmail author
  • Raymond H. Oyen
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


As renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma are by far the most common renal parenchymal tumoral lesions, less attention is paid to rare or secondary tumors of the kidney. Most of these lesions, benign or malignant, do not indeed have specific radiological features, and differentiation from renal cell carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma based on imaging characteristics is often difficult or impossible. In cases lacking characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, biopsy may be required for histological diagnosis and decision on further therapeutic management. However, some imaging characteristics may be contributive to narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby enabling decisions on the therapeutic approach.

In addition, the importance of identifying renal pseudotumors is underestimated. More pseudotumoral lesions are seen after nephron-sparing surgery and thermal ablation. Knowledge of and recognizing all possible pseudotumoral renal lesions can help reduce false-positive diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive treatment or retreatment.


Solitary Fibrous Tumor Sickle Cell Trait Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal Sinus Sinus Histiocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abrams HL, Spiro R, Goldstein N (1950) Metastases in carcinoma; analysis of 1000 autopsied cases. Cancer 3:74–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaudoin J, Périgny M, Têtu B et al (2008) A patient with a juxtaglomerular cell tumor with histological vascular invasion. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 4:458–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bechtold RE, Wolfman NT, Karstaedt N et al (1987) Renal sinus histiocytosis. Radiology 162:689–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bechtold RE, Dyer RB, Zagoria RJ et al (1996) The perirenal space: relationship of pathologic processes to normal retroperitoneal anatomy. Radiographics 16:841–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatt S, MacLennan G, Dogra V (2007) Renal pseudotumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:1380–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blitman NM, Berkenblit RG, Rozenblit AM et al (2005) Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol 185:268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carazo ER, Benitez AM, Milena GL et al (2001) Multiple renal masses as initial manifestation of Wegener’s granulomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 176:116–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chao D, Zisman A, Pantuck AJ et al (2002) Collecting duct renal cell carcinoma: clinical study of a rare tumor. J Urol 167:71–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiang IC, Jang MY, Tsai KB et al (2006) Huge renal lipoma with prominent hypervascular non-adipose elements. Br J Radiol 79:e148–e151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choi DJ, Wallace EC, Fraire AE et al (2005) Best cases from the AFIP: intrarenal teratoma. Radiographics 25:481–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choyke PL, White EM, Zeman RK et al (1987) Renal metastases: clinicopathologic and radiologic correlation. Radiology 162:359–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson AJ, Choyke PL, Hartman DS et al (1995) Renal medullary carcinoma associated with sickle cell trait: radiologic findings. Radiology 195:83–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis CJ Jr, Mostofi FK, Sesterhenn IA (1995) Renal medullary carcinoma. The seventh sickle cell nephropathy. Am J Surg Pathol 19:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunnick NR, Hartman DS, Ford KK et al (1983) The radiology of juxtaglomerular tumors. Radiology 147:321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Engin G, Acuna B, Acuna G et al (2000) Imaging of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographics 20:471–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Enomoto K, Nakamichi I, Hamada K et al (2007) Unicentric and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Br J Radiol 80:e24–e26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fairbanks KD, Hellmann DB, Fishman EK et al (2000) Wegener’s granulomatosis presenting as a renal mass. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174:1597–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garel L, Robitaille P, Dubois J et al (1993) Pediatric case of the day. Reninoma of the left kidney. Radiographics 13:477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelb AB, Simmons ML, Weidner N (1996) Solitary fibrous tumor involving the renal capsule. Am J Surg Pathol 20:1288–1295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibson MS, Puckett ML, Shelly ME (2004) Renal tuberculosis. Radiographics 24:251–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton I, Reis L, Bilimoria S et al (1980) A renal vipoma. Br Med J 281:1323–1324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanau CA, Miettinen M (1995) Solitary fibrous tumor: histological and immunohistochemical spectrum of benign and malignant variants presenting at different sites. Hum Pathol 26:440–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hartman DS, Davis CJ Jr, Lichtenstein JE et al (1980) Renal parenchymal malacoplakia. Radiology 136:33–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hayes WS, Hartman DS, Sesterbenn IA (1991) From the archives of the AFIP: xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Radiographics 11:485–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heller MT, Haarer KA, Thomas E et al (2012) Neoplastic and proliferative disorder of the perinephric space. Clin Radiol 67:e31–e41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hopkins JK, Giles HW Jr, Wyatt-Ashmead J et al (2004) Best cases from the AFIP: cystic nephroma. Radiographics 24:589–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Idrissi-Serhrouchni K, El-Fatemi H, El madi A et al (2013) Primary renal teratoma: a rare entity. Diagn Pathol 8:107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Isobe H, Takashima H, Higashi N et al (2000) Primary carcinoid tumor in a horseshoe kidney. Int J Urol 7:184–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Israel GM, Bosniak MA (2005) How I do it: evaluating renal masses. Radiology 236:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Israel GM, Bosniak MA (2008) Pitfalls in renal mass evaluation and how to avoid them. Radiographics 28:1325–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson TR, Pedrosa I, Goldsmith J et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging findings in solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. J Comput Assist Tomogr 29:481–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katabathina VS, Vikram R, Nagar AM et al (2010) Mesenchymal neoplasms of the kidney in adults: imaging spectrum with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 30:1525–1540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koyama T, Ueda H, Togashi K et al (2004) Radiologic manifestations of sarcoidosis in various organs. Radiographics 24:87–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krishnamurthy R, Aparajitha C, Abraham G et al (1998) Renal aspergillosis giving rise to obstructive uropathy and recurrent anuric renal failure. Geriatr Nephrol Urol 8:137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kumar M, Duerinckx AJ (2004) Bilateral extraadrenal perirenal myelolipomas: an imaging challenge. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:833–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lalani TA, Kanne JP, Hatfield GA et al (2004) Imaging findings in systemic lupus erythematosus. Radiographics 24:1069–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leitao VA, da Silva W, Jr FU et al (2006) Renal medullary carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature. Urol Int 77:184–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lowe LH, Isuani BH, Heller RM et al (2000) Pediatric renal masses: Wilms tumor and beyond. Radiographics 20:1585–1603. [Erratum in: Radiographics 21:766]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Madewell JE, Goldman SM, Davis CJ Jr et al (1983) Multilocular cystic nephroma: a radiographic-pathologic correlation of 58 patients. Radiology 146:309–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mazziotti S, Zimbaro F, Pandolfo A et al (2010) Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal pseudotumors. Abdom Imaging 35:241–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mejean A, Roupret M, Larousserie F et al (2003) Is there a place for radical nephrectomy in the presence of metastatic collecting duct (Bellini) carcinoma? J Urol 169:1287–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Melegh Z, Rényi-Vámos F, Tanyay Z et al (2002) Giant cystic pheochromocytoma located in the renal hilus. Pathol Res Pract 198:103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Narla LD, Newman B, Spottswood SS et al (2004) Inflammatory pseudotumor. Radiographics 23:719–729. [Erratum in: Radiographics 23:1702]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Orsola A, Trias I, Raventós CX et al (2005) Renal collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma displays similar characteristics to upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Urology 65:49–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pascal RR (1980) Renal manifestations of extrarenal neoplasms. Hum Pathol 11:7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pedrosa I, Sun MR, Spencer M et al (2008) MR imaging of renal masses: correlation with findings at surgery and pathologic analysis. Radiographics 28:985–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pickhardt PJ, Lonergan GJ, Davis CJ Jr et al (2000) From the archives of the AFIP. Infiltrative renal lesions: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Radiographics 20:215–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prasad SR, Humphrey PA, Menias CO et al (2005) Neoplasms of the renal medulla: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 25:369–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rha SE, Byun JY, Jung SE et al (2004) The renal sinus: pathologic spectrum and multimodality imaging approach. Radiographics 24(Suppl 1):S117–S131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roy C, Pfleger D, Tuchmann C et al (1998) Small leiomyosarcoma of the renal capsule: CT findings. Eur Radiol 8:224–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sheth S, Ali S, Fishman E (2006) Imaging of renal lymphoma: patterns of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 26:1151–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Srigley JR, Eble JN (1998) Collecting duct carcinoma of kidney. Semin Diagn Pathol 15:54–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Störkel S, Eble JN, Adlakha K et al (1997) Classification of renal cell carcinoma: workgroup no. 1. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Cancer 80:987–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Surabhi VR, Menias C, Prasad SR et al (2008) Neoplastic and non-neoplastic proliferative disorders of the perirenal space: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics 28:1005–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Takao H, Yamahira K, Doi I et al (2004) Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the retroperitoneum: CT and MR findings. Eur Radiol 14:1926–1929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tessler FN, Tublin ME, Rifkin MD (1998) US case of the day. Renal leiomyoma. Radiographics 18:791–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Urban BA, Fishman EK, Goldman SM et al (1993) CT evaluation of amyloidosis: spectrum of disease. Radiographics 13:1295–1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Volders WK, Gelin G, Stessens RC (2001) Best cases from the AFIP. Hydatid cyst of the kidney: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 21(Spec No):S255–S260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wagner BJ, Wong-You-Cheong JJ, Davis CJ Jr (1997) Adult renal hamartomas. Radiographics 17:155–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Walsh IK, Kernohan RM, Johnston CF et al (1996) Somatostatinoma in a horseshoe kidney. Br J Urol 78:958–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Warren KE, Gidvani-Diaz V, Duval-Arnould B (1999) Renal medullary carcinoma in an adolescent with sickle cell trait. Pediatrics 103:E22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yoon SK, Rha SH (2006) Collecting duct carcinoma. In: Guermazi A (ed) Imaging in kidney cancer. Springer, Berlin, pp 171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zagoria RJ (2004a) The kidney and retroperitoneum: anatomy and congenital abnormalities. In: Genitourinary radiology: the requisites, 2nd edn. Mosby, Philadelphia, pp 62–63Google Scholar
  64. Zagoria RJ (2004b) Renal masses. In: Genitourinary radiology: the requisites, 2nd edn. Mosby, Philadelphia, pp 118–120Google Scholar
  65. Zeman RK, Cronan JJ, Rosenfield AT et al (1986) Computed tomography of renal masses: pitfalls and anatomic variants. Radiographics 6:351–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologySint Trudo HospitalSint-TruidenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospitals Leuven, Catholic University LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations