Marketing of Pontian Smallholders’ Rubber: Mutual Aid Arrangements Among Hokkien Dealers

  • Janet Tai Landa


This chapter will describe the marketing of Pontian smallholder’s rubber through the various levels of middlemen, and the mutual aid arrangements among Hokkien dealers to facilitate them in their middleman roles. Section 1 will provide the background for understanding the Chinese middleman system involved in the marketing of smallholders rubber in Singapore and West Malaysia.1 Section 2 will describe the organization of the marketing of Pontian smallholders’ rubber, paying special attention to the functional specialization and division of labor among the various levels of middlemen. Section 3 will describe the various forms of mutual aid arrangement Hokkien dealers make among themselves for the organization of: (a) contract-protection; (b) acquisition and transmission of price and non-price information; (c) credit; and (d) debt settlement. Section 4 will provide a summary of ten case studies of successful rubber dealing firms that began as small firms and expanded into large firms. The case studies provide insights into the dynamics of Chinese firm expansion, the patterns of integration, as well as further insights into forms of Chinese mutual aid. My concluding remarks are contained in Section 5.


Natural Rubber Packing Firm Commission Agent Private Limited Company Marketing Structure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsFaculty of Liberal Arts and Professional Studies, York UniversityTorontoCanada

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