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Marine Viruses

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Abstract

Marine viruses are the most abundant life-forms in the ocean and exist wherever life is found. The estimated virus count in the ocean is 10 30 , and every second about 10 23 viral infections occur in the ocean. These infections are a major source of disease and mortality in organisms ranging from shrimp to whales. Each infection potentially introduces new genetic information into an organism or into progeny viruses. These new genetic changes allow evolution of the host and virus population. Viruses represent the planet’s largest pool of genetic diversity. Our understanding of the impact of viruses on global systems, however, is still incomplete. This chapter will present a general review of marine viruses; their impact on marine organisms, such as cyanobacteria, mollusks, and more detailed about shrimp viruses, diagnostics and the control of shrimp viral diseases.

Keywords

  • White Spot Syndrome Virus
  • Hepatitis Delta Virus
  • Phage Therapy
  • Shrimp Aquaculture
  • Shrimp Species

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Abbreviations

BMNV:

baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus

BP:

Baculoviruspenaei

CTX:

cholera toxin

DIG:

digoxigenin 11-dUTP

DNA:

deoxyribonucleic acid

GAV:

gill-associated virus

HPV:

hepatopancreatic parvovirus

IHHNV:

infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus

IMNV:

infectious myonecrosis virus

ISH:

in situ hybridization

IgG:

immunoglobulin G

IgM:

immunoglobulin M

LOVV:

lymphoid organ vacuolization virus

LPV:

lymphoidalparvo-like virus

LSNV:

Laem–Singh virus

MABV:

marine birnavirus

MBV:

monodon baculovirus

MT:

metric ton

MoV:

Mourilyan virus

NS2:

nonstructural protein-2

ORF:

open reading frame

PCR:

polymerase chain reaction

PSII:

photosystem II

RNAi:

RNA interference

RNA:

ribonucleic acid

RPS:

rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp

SMV:

spawner-isolated mortality virus

TEM:

transmission electron microscopy

TSV:

Taura syndrome virus

VP:

viral protein

WSD:

white spot disease

WSSV:

white spot syndrome virus

YHV:

yellow head virus

dsDNA:

double-stranded DNA

dsRNA:

double-stranded RNA

hli:

high light inducible gene

mAb:

monoclonal antibodies

mRNA:

messenger RNA

pAb:

polyclonal antibodies

ssRNA:

single-stranded RNA

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Subbiah, J. (2015). Marine Viruses. In: Kim, SK. (eds) Springer Handbook of Marine Biotechnology. Springer Handbooks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-53971-8_4

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