Advertisement

Angeborene Herzfehler mit überwiegendem Links-Rechts-Shunt

  • A. A. Schmaltz
  • J. Apitz
  • H. Singer
  • G. Wagner

Zusammenfassung

Von Leonardo da Vinci stammt die erste Zeichnung eines Vorhofseptumdefektes bei einem Leichnam; von Rokitansky [25] gab die erste komplette pathologisch-anatomische Beschreibung. Doch dauerte es bis Anfang der 40er Jahre, bis man den Vorhofseptumdefekt klinisch zu diagnostizieren lernte. Mit der im folgenden Jahrzehnt einsetzenden Verbreitung der Herzkatheterisierung konnte die Diagnose auf sichere Füße gestellt und ab 1953 der offenen Herzchirurgie an der Herz-Lungen-Maschine zugeführt werden. Rashkind und Cuaso berichteten (nach Vorgängern) 1977 über einen transvaskulären Defektverschluß, der nach vielen Modifikationen in den letzten Jahren klinische Bedeutung erlangte [23].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Borst H (1905) Ein Cor triatriatum. Zentralbi Allg Pathol 16: 812Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolens M, Friedli B (1984) Sinus nodefunction and conduction system before and after surgery for secundum atrial septal defect: an electrophysiologic study. Am J Cardial 53: 1415–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campbell M (1970) Natural history of atrial septal defect. Br Heart J 32: 820–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chanoine JP, Viart P, Perlmutter N, Spehl M, Malfroot A, Piepsz A (1988) Unusual ventilation-perfusion mismatch in partial anomalous venous return. Pediatr Radiol 18: 497–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Church WS (1868) Congenital malformation of the heart: abnormal septum in left auricle. Trans Pathol Soc (Lond) 19: 188Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cockerham JT, Martin TC, Gutierrez FR, Hartmann AF, Goldring D Jr, Strauss AW (1983) Spontaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect in infants and young children. Am J Cardiol 52: 1267–1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dotter CT, Hardisty NM, Steinberg I (1949) Anomalous right pulmonary vein entering the inferior vena cava: two cases diagnosed during life by angiocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Am J Med Sci 218: 31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Driscoll DJ, Hesslein PS, Mullins CE (1982) Congenital stenosis of individual pulmonary veins: Clinical spectrum and unsuccessful treatment by transvenous balloon dilatation. Am J Cardiol 49: 1767Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dupuis C, Charaf LAC, Brevière GM, Abou P, MD (1993) “Infantile” form of the Scimitar syndrome with pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol 71: 1326–1330Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Esscher E, Michaelsson M (1977) Long-term results following closure of isolated ostium secundum atrial septal defect in children and adults. Eur J Cardiol 6: 109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freed MD, Nadas AS, Norwood WI, Castaneda AR (1984) Is routine preoperative cardiac catheterization necessary before repair of secundum and sinus atrial septal defects? J Am Coll Cardiol 4: 333–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galal MO, Wobst A, Halees Z, Hatle L, Schmaltz AA, Khougeer F, De Vol E, Fawzy ME, Abbag F, Fadley F, Duran CMG (1994) Perioperative complications following surgical closure of atrial septal defect type II in 232 patients- a baseline study. Eur Heart J 15: 1381–1384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gustafson RA, Warden HE, Murray GF, Hill RC, Rozar GE (1989) Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the right side of the heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 98: 861–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jegier W, Gibbons EJE, Wiglesworth FW (1963) Cor triatrium: clinical, hemodynamic and pathologic studies-surgical correction in early life. Pediatrics 31: 255–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krabill KA, Lucas RV Jr (1995) Abnormal pulmonary venous connections. In: Emmanouilides GC, Riemenschneider TA, Allen HD, Gutgesell HP (eds) Moss and Adams Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Williams und Wilkins Baltimore, pp 839–873Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meijboom F, Hess J, Szatmari A, Utens EMWJ, McGhie J, Deckers JW, Roelandt JRTC, Bos E (1993) Long-term follow-up (9 to 20 years) after surgical closure of atrial septal defect at a young age. Am J Cardiol 72: 1431–1434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mendelsohn AM, Bove EL, Lupinetti FM, Crowley DC, Lloyd TR, Fedderly RT, Beekman RH (1993) Intraoperative and percutaneous stenting of congenital pulmonary artery and vein stenosis. Circulation 88 [part 2]: 210–217Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miller GAH, Ongley POA, Anderson MW, Kincaid OW, Swan HJC (1964) Cor triatriatum: Hemodynamic and angiocardiographic diagnosis. AM Heart J 68: 298Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mühler E, Engelhardt W, Grabitz RG, Messmer BJ, Bernuth GV (1991) Kongenitale Lungenvenenstenosen als seltene Ursache einer pulmonalen Hypertension. Klin Pädiatr 203: 137–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murphy JG, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD, Mair DD, Porter CBJ, Ilstrup DM, McGoon DC, Puga FJ, Kirklin JW, Danielson GK (1990) Long-term outcome after surgical repair of isolated atrial septal defect. N Engl J Med 323: 1645–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neill CA, Ferencz C, Sabiston DC, Sheldon H (1960) The familial occurrence of hypoplastic right lung with systematic arterial supply and venous drainage: “scimitar syndrome”. John Hopkins Med J 107: 1–21Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rao PS, Sideris EB, Hausdrof G, Rey C, Lloyd TR, Beekmann RH, Worms AM, Bourlon F, Onorato E, Khalilullah M, Haddad J (1994) International experience with secundum atrial septal defect occlusion by the buttoned device. Am Heart J 128: 1022–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rashkind WJ, Cuaso CC (1977) Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects in children (abstr). Eur J Cardiol 8: 119–120Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reye RDK (1951) Congenital stenosis of the pulmonary veins in their extrapulmonary course. Med J Aust 1: 801–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rokitansky CF von (1875) Die Defekte der Scheidewände des Herzens. Braumüller, WienGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shub C, Dimopoulos IN, Seward JB, Callahan JA, Tancredi RG, Schattenberg TT, Reeder GS, Hagler DJ, Tajik AJ (1983) Sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography in the direct visualization of atrial septal defect utilizing the subcostal approach: experience with 154 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2: 127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smallhorn JF, Panperi OH, Benson L et al. (1985) Pulsed Doppler assessment of pulmonary vein obstruction. Am Heart J 110: 483–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Teufel M, Schmaltz AA, Heil RP, Apitz J (1980) Prä-und postoperative Befunde bei Kindern mit Vorhofseptumdefekt. Herz/Kreisl 12: 121–125Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van Mierop LHS (1976) Embryology of the atrioventricular canal region and pathogenesis of endocardial cushion defects. In: Feldt RH, McGoon DC, Ongley PA, Rastelli GC, Titus JL, Van Mierop LHS (eds) Atrioventricular canal defects. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ward C (1994) Secundum atrial septal defect: routine surgical treatment its not of proven benefit. Br Heart J 71: 219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilmshurst PT, de Beider MA (1994) Patent foramen ovale in adult life. Br Heart J 71: 209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1.
    Abbott ME (1936) Atlas of Congential cardiac disease. Amer Heart Ass, New York, pp 50–51Google Scholar
  33. 2.
    Anderson RH, Macartney FJ, Shinebourne EA, Tynan M (1987) Paediatric Cardiology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, pp 615–642Google Scholar
  34. 3.
    Apitz J (1987) Der Ventrikelseptumdefekt. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 135: 419–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 4.
    Apitz J, Beuren AJ (1963) Angeborene Herzfehler im 1. Lebensjahr. Arch Kreislaufforsch 42: 264–276Google Scholar
  36. 5.
    Apitz J, Stoermer J (1967) Über die Lebensaussichten von Säuglingen mit kongenitalen Angiokardiopathien. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 115: 95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 6.
    Bargeron LM Jr, Elliott LP, Soto B, Bream PR, Curry GC (1977) Axial cineangiography in congenital heart disease. Circulation 56: 1075–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 7.
    Barron JV, Sahn DJ, Valdes-Cruz LM, Lima CO, Goldberg SJ, Grenadier E, Allen HD (1984) Clinical utility of twodimensional Doppler echocardiographic techniques for estimating pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratios in children with left to right shunting atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 169–178Google Scholar
  39. 8.
    Becker AE, Anderson RH (1981) Pathology of congenital heart disease. Butterworths, London, pp 93–117Google Scholar
  40. 9.
    Becker AE, Anderson RH (1985) Pathologie des Herzens. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, pp 188–193Google Scholar
  41. 10.
    Becu LM, Fontana RS, DuShane JW, Kirklin JW, Burchell HB, Edwards JE (1956) Anatomic and pathologic studies in ventricular septal defect. Circulation 14: 349–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 11.
    Beuren A (1960) Der Ventrikelseptumdefekt; Diagnose, Klinik und Indikation zur Operation. Ergebn Innere Med Kinderheilkd 15: 329–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 12.
    Dalrymple J (1847) Diseased heart in which the root of the aorta had an opening common to the two ventricles. Trans path Soc Lond 1: 58Google Scholar
  44. 13.
    Eisenmenger V (1897) Die angeborenen Defekte der Kammerscheidewand des Herzens. Z Klin Med (Suppl) 32: 1–28Google Scholar
  45. 14.
    Elliott LP, Bargeron LM Jr, Bream PR, Soto B, Curry GC (1977) Axial cineangiography in congenital heart disease. Circulation 56: 1084–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 15.
    Eyler DC (1992) Nadas’ Pediatric Cardiology. Mosby Year book, Inc, St Louis, pp 435–457Google Scholar
  47. 16.
    Gasul BM, Dillon RF, Vrla V, Hait G (1957) Ventricular septal defects. Their natural transformation into those with infundibular stenosis or into the cyanotic or non-cyanotic type of Tetralogy of Fallot. JAMA 164: 847–853Google Scholar
  48. 17.
    Gussenhofen EJ, Becker AE (1983) Congenital Heart Disease. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 87–102Google Scholar
  49. 18.
    Heath D, Edwards JE (1958) The pathology of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease: a description of six grades of structural changes in the pulmonary arteries with special reference to congenital septal defects. Circulation 18: 533–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 19.
    Hoffmeister HE, Hoffmeister HM, Apitz J, Fischbach H (1984) Hämodynamik und Histologie der Lunge bei 175 Ventrikelseptumdefekten. Klin Pädiatr 196: 195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 20.
    Keith JD, Rowe RD, Vlad P (1979) Heart Disease in Infancy and Childhood, 3rd ed. MacMillan, New York, pp 320–379Google Scholar
  52. 21.
    Lev M (1959) The pathologic anatomy of ventricular septal defects. Dis Chest 35: 533–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 22.
    Milo S, Ho SY, Wilkinson JL, Anderson RH (1980) The surgical anatomy and atrioventricular conduction tissues of hearts with isolated ventricular septal defects. J Thorac cardiovasc Surg 79: 244–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 23.
    Neufeld HN, Titus JL, DuShane JW, Burchell HB, Edwards JE (1961) Isolated ventricular septal defect of the persistent common atrioventricular canal typ. Circulation 23: 685–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 24.
    Orlikowsky TW (1989) Panoramawandel beim Patienten mit Ventrikelseptumdefekt. Inaugural-Dissertation, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  56. 25.
    Roger H (1979) Recherches cliniques sur la communication congenitale des deux coeurs, par inocclusion du septum interventriculaire. Bull Acad Méd (Paris) 8: 1074–1 189Google Scholar
  57. 26.
    Rokitansky C von (1875) Die Defekte der Scheidewände des Herzens. Pathol Anat Abhdlg, W Braunmüller, WienGoogle Scholar
  58. 27.
    Rudolph AM (1970) The changes in the circulation after birth. Their importance in congenital heart disease. Circulation 41: 343–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 28.
    Schmaltz AA, Singer H (1994) Herzoperierte Kinder und Jugendliche. WVG, Stuttgart, pp 120–124Google Scholar
  60. 29.
    Schüle G, Apitz J, Schubert GE (1968) Über den Spontanverschluß beim Ventrikelseptumdefekt. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 116: 539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 30.
    Schumann K-U (1986) Ventrikelseptumdefekt-Verlauf und postoperative, submaximale Ergometerbelastung. Inaugural-Dissertation, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  62. 31.
    Soto B, Becker AE, Moulaert AJ, Lie JT, Anderson RH (1980) Classification of ventricular septal defects. Brit Heart J 43: 332–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 32.
    Taussig HB (1947) Congenital malformations of the heart. The Commonwealth Fund, New York, pp 390–399Google Scholar
  64. 1.
    Amplatz K, Moller JH (1993) Radiology of congenital heart disease. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 365–393Google Scholar
  65. 2.
    Anderson RH, Ho SY (1989) The surgical anatomy of the atrioventricular septal defect: In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part I. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 81–85Google Scholar
  66. 3.
    Anderson RH, Macartney FJ, Shinebourne EA, Tynan M (1987) Straddling atrioventricular valves. In: Anderson RH, Shinebourne EA (eds) Paediatric Cardiology, Vol. II. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp 697–709Google Scholar
  67. 4.
    Backer CL, Mavroudis C, Alboliras ET, Zales VR (1995) Repair of complete atrioventricular canal defects: results with the two-patch technique. Ann Thorac Surg 60: 530–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 5.
    Backhoff S, Thies WR, Breymann T, Matthies W, Crespo-Martinez E, Körfer R, Meyer H (1995) Ergebnisse der operativen Rekonstruktion der AV-Klappen beim partiellen atrioventrikulären Septumdefekt ( Abstr ). Z Kardiol 84: 747–748Google Scholar
  69. 6.
    Bando K, Turrentine MW, Sun K, Sharp TG, Ensing GJ, Miller AP, Kesler KA, Binford RS, Carlos GN, Caldvell RL, Carragh RK, Hubbard J, Cordes TM, Girod DA, King H, Brown JW (1995) Surgical management of complete atrioventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110: 1543–1554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 7.
    Bharati S, Lev M (1973) The spectrum of common atrioventricular orifice (canal). Am Heart J 86: 553561Google Scholar
  71. 8.
    Blum U, Singer H, Hofbeck M, Mahmoud F, von der Emde J (1995) Ergebnisse nach primärer und zweizeitiger Korrektur des kompletten Atrioventrikularkanals. Z Herz-, Thorax-, Gefäßchirurgie 9: 2–8Google Scholar
  72. 9.
    Breymann T, Thies WR, Dubowy KO, Cherlet E, Matthies W, Crespo-Martinez E, Körfer R, Meyer H (1995) Primäre Korrektur des kompletten AVSD im Säuglingsalter ( Abstr ). Z Kardiol 84: 747Google Scholar
  73. 10.
    Carpentier A (1978) Surgical anatomy and management of the mitral component of atrioventricular canal defects. In: Anderson RH, Shinebourne EA (eds) Paediatric Cardiology. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, pp 477–490Google Scholar
  74. 11.
    Castaneda RA, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Hanley FL (1994) Atrioventricular canal defect. In: Cardiac Surgery of the Neonate and Infant. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 167–186Google Scholar
  75. 12.
    Clapp S, Perry BL, Farooki ZQ, Jackson WL, Karpawich PP, Hakimi M, Arciniegas E, Green EW, Pinsky WW (1990) Down’s syndrome, complete atrioventricular canal and pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 100: 115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 13.
    Daliento L, Rizzoli G, Marchiaria MC, Burga G, Milanesi O, Valente S, Stellin G, Mazzucco A (1991) Electrical instability in patients undergoing surgery for atrioventricular septal defect. In J Cardiol 30: 15–21Google Scholar
  77. 14.
    Ebels T (1989) New surgical aspects of atrioventricular septal defect. Van Denderen BV, GroningenGoogle Scholar
  78. 15.
    Ebels T, Cromme-Dijkhuis AH, Meijboom EJ, Schaafsfoort van Leeuwen MJM, Eijgglaar A (1989) The functional anatomy of the left atrioventricular valve determines the long-term results following correction of atrioventricular septal defect. In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part 1. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 115–119Google Scholar
  79. 16.
    Feldt RH, Co-Burn JP, Edwards WD, Puga FJ, Seward JD (1995) Atrioventricular septal defects. In: Emmanouilides GC, Allan HD, Riemenschneider TA, Gutgesell HP (eds) Moss and Adams Heart disease in infants, children and adolescents, 5th edition. Williams und Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 704–723Google Scholar
  80. 17.
    Freedom RM, Rebeyka I, Smallhorn JF, Rabinovitch M, Musewe N, Turner-Gomez S, Alexander D, Thompson L, Williams WG, Coles J, Trusler GA (1989) Late postoperative functional results after complete repair in infancy for atrioventricular septal defect. In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part I. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  81. 18.
    Hanley FL, Fenton KN, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Cook NR, Wernowski G, Castaneda AR (1993) Surgical repair of complete atrioventricular canal defects in infancy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106: 387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 19.
    Meisner H, Peak SU, Hänel CH, Sebening F (1992) Rekonstruktion der AV-Klappen beim partiellen AV-Kanal. Langenbeck’s Arch Chir ( Suppl, Kongreßbericht 1992 ): 518–522Google Scholar
  83. 20.
    Meisner H, Peak SU, Sebening F (1995) 20 Jahre Erfahrung mit der chirurgischen Behandlung des totalen AV-Kanals (Abstr) Z Kardiol 84: 746Google Scholar
  84. 21.
    Merrill HW, Hammon JW, Graham TP jr, Bender HW (1991) Complete repair of atrioventricular septal defect. Am Thorac Surg 52: 29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 22.
    Pacifico AD (1994) Atrioventricular septal defects. In: Stark J, de Leval M (eds) Surgery for congenital heart defects. Springer, Heidelberg New York, pp 373–388Google Scholar
  86. 23.
    Puga FJ (1989) Results of surgical treatment of partial atrioventricular canal defect. In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. Il, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part I. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 92–95Google Scholar
  87. 24.
    Rizzoli G, Rubino M, Stellin G, Giambuzzi M, Daliento L, Galluci V (1989) Survival after surgical repair of atrio-ventricular canal: Analysis of the riscfactors involved. In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part I. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 107–111Google Scholar
  88. 25.
    Rizzoli G, Mazzucco A, Maizza F, Daliento L, Rubino M, Tursi Scalia V (1992) Does Down-Syndrome affect prognosis of surgically managed atrioventricular canal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104: 945–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 26.
    Sebening F, Meisner H, Peak SU (1989) Early results of repair of complete atrioventricular canal. In: Crupi G, Parenzan L, Anderson RH (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Part I. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York, pp 96–98Google Scholar
  90. 27.
    Silverman NH (1993) Atrioventricular septal defects (atrioventricular canal defects). In: Pediatric Echocardiography. Williams und Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 143166Google Scholar
  91. 28.
    Singer H (1996) Herzkatheteruntersuchungen im Säuglings-and Kindesalter aus pädiatrisch-kardiologischer Sicht. In: Beushausen T, Krauß GB, Strauß J (Hrsg) Sedierung and Narkose bei diagnostischen Eingriffen im Kindesalter. Springer, Berlin, S 53–74Google Scholar
  92. 29.
    Somerville J (1965) Ostium primum defect: Factors causing deterioration the natural history. Br Heart J 27: 413–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 30.
    Studer M, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD, Soto B, Chung GK, Kirklin JK, Bargeron LM jr (1982) Determinants of early and late results of repair of atrioventricular septal (canal) defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 84: 523–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 31.
    Sutherland GR (1993) Primum atrial septal defects (partial atrioventricular defects), complete and intermediate forms of atrio-ventricular septal defects. In: Stümper O, Sutherland GR (eds) Transeosphageal echocardiography in congenital heart disease. Edward Arnold, London, pp 71–75Google Scholar
  95. 32.
    Ungerleider RM (1992) The use of intraoperative epicardial echocardiography with colour flow imaging during the repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects. Cardiol in the Young 2: 56Google Scholar
  96. 33.
    Ungerleider RM (1992) Atrioventricular canal defects. In: Nichols DG, Cameron DE, Greeley WJ, Lappe DG, Ungerleider RM, Wetzel RC (eds) Critical heart disease in infants and children. Mosby, St Louis, pp 601–622Google Scholar
  97. 34.
    Van Arsdell GS, Williams WG, Boutin C, Trusler GA, Coles JG, Rebeyka IM, Freedom RM (1995) Subaortic stenosis in the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110: 1534–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 35.
    Vick III, GW, Titus JL (1990) Defects of the atrial septum including the atrioventricular canal. In: Gar-son A jr, Bricker T, McNamara DG (eds) The science and practice of Pediatric Cardiology, Vol. II. Lea und Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 1023–1054Google Scholar
  99. 36.
    Wetter J, Blaschczok CH, Brecher Am, Sinzobahamvya N, Urban AE (1995) Primärkorrektur des AVSD: Die Bedeutung der Rekonstruktion der linksseitigen AV-Klappe. Z Kardiol (Abstr) 84: 746–747Google Scholar
  100. 37.
    Yasui H, Nakamura Y, Kado H (1990) Primary repair of complete atrioventricular canal: recommendation for early primary repair. J Cardiovasc Surg 31: 498–504Google Scholar
  101. 1.
    Ali Khan MA, Al Yousef S, Mullins CE, Sawyer W (1992) Experience with 205 procedures of transcatheter closure of ductus arteriosus in 182 patients, with special reference to residual shunts and long-term follow-up. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104: 1721–1727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 2.
    Balaji S, Burch M, Sullivan ID (1991) Accuracy of cross-sectional echocardiography in diagnosis of aortopulmonary window. Am J Cardiol 67: 650–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 3.
    Breitwieser C, Schmaltz AA, Neudorf U, Hentrich F, Brecher AM, Urban AE, Doetsch N, Reidemeister Chr (1996) Nicht-invasive Diagnostik bei angeborenen Herzfehlern. Ein Vergleich von prä-und intraoperativen Befunden. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 144: 520–525Google Scholar
  104. 4.
    Campbell M (1968) Natural history of persistent duc-tus arteriosus. Br Heart J 30: 4–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 5.
    Deverall PB, Lincoln JCR, Aberdeen E, et al. (1969) Aortopulmonary window. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 57: 479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 6.
    Doty DB, Richardson JV, Falkovsky GE, Gordonova MI, Burakovsky VI (1981) Aortopulmonary septal defect: Hemodynamics, angiography, and operation. Ann Thorac Surg 32: 244–250Google Scholar
  107. 7.
    European Registry, report of (1992) Transcatheter occlusion of persistent arterial duct. Lancet 340: 10621066Google Scholar
  108. 8.
    Fisher RG, Moodi DS, Sterba R, Gill CC (1986) Patent ductus arteriosus- long-term follow-up; nonsurgical versus surgical treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 8: 280–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 9.
    Gray DT, Fyler DC, Walker AM, Weinstein MC, Chalmers TC (1993) Clinical outcomes and costs of transcatheter as compared with surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med 329: 1517–1523Google Scholar
  110. 10.
    Gross RE (1952) Surgical closure of an aortic septal defect. Circulation 5: 858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 11.
    Gross GW, Hubbard JP (1939) Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. J Am Med Ass 112: 723–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 12.
    Haerten K, Both A, Opherk D, Loogen F (1977) Langzeitbeobachtungen nach operativer Behandlung von Ductus arteriosus apertus und Ventrikelseptumdefekt mit Widerstandserhöhung in der Lungenstrohmbahn. Z Kardiol 66: 19–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 13.
    Hosking MCK, Benson LN, Musewe N, Dyck JD, Freedom RM (1991) Transcatheter occlusion of the persistently patent ductus arteriosus. Circulation 84: 2313–2317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 14.
    Kececioglu D, Förster R, Gehrmann J, Vogt J, Kotthoff S, Scheld HH (1995) Thoracoscopic interruption of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Cardiol Young 5 (Suppl 1): S 17Google Scholar
  115. 15.
    Krichenko A, Benson LN, Burrows P, Möes CAF, McLaughlin P, Freedom RM (1989) Angiographic classification of the isolated, persistently patent duc-tus arteriosus and implications for percutaneous catheter occlusion. Am J Cardiol 63: 877–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 16.
    Kutsche LM, van Mierop LHS (1987) Anatomy and pathogenesis of aorticopulmonary septal defect. Am J Cardiol 59: 443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 17.
    Musewe N, Benson LN, Smallhorn JF, Freedom RM (1989) Two-dimensional echocardiographic and color-flow Doppler evaluation of ductual occlusion with the Rashkind prosthesis. Circulation 80: 17061710Google Scholar
  118. 18.
    Panagopoulos G, Tatooles Ci, Aberdeen E, Waterston DJ, Bonham-Carter RE (1971) Patent ductus arteriosus in infants and children. Thorax 26: 137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 19.
    Porstmann W, Wierny L, Warnke H (1967) Der Verschluss des Ductus arteriosus persistens ohne Thorakotomie. 1. Mitteilung. Thoraxchirurgie 15: 199–203Google Scholar
  120. 20.
    Rashkind W, Cuaso C (1979) Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatr Cardiol 1: 3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 21.
    Schmaltz AA, Reidemeister JC, Neudorf U, Doetsch N, Hentrich F (1994) Restshunts nach chirurgischer Ductusligatur. Z Herz- Thorax- Gefäßchir 8: 91–94Google Scholar
  122. 22.
    Sörensen KE, Kristensen BO, Hansen OK (199 I) Frequency of occurrence of residual ductual flow after surgical ligation by color-flow mapping. Am J Cardiol 67: 653–654Google Scholar
  123. 23.
    Zucker N, Quereshi SA, Baker EJ, Deverall PB, Tynan M (1993) Residual patency of the arterial duct subsequent to surgical ligation. Cardiol Young 3: 216–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 1.
    Avery JB, Malformation of the systemic veins (1984) In: Avery JB (ed) Cardiovascular pathology in infants and children. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 277–281Google Scholar
  125. 2.
    Dehner LP, Ishak KG (1971) Vascular tumors of the liver in infants and children. Arch Pathol 92: 101–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 3.
    Gasul BM, Arcilla RA, Lev H (1966) Heart Disease in Children. Pitman Medical Publishing LO, Ltd, J B Lippincott Company, London Philadelphia, pp 442458Google Scholar
  127. 4.
    Heaton ND, Davenport M, Karani J, Mowat AP, Howard ER (1995) Congenital hepatoportal arteriovenous fistula. Surgery 117: 170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 5.
    Horowitz MB, Jungreis CA, Quisling RG, Pollack I (1994) Vein of Galen aneurysms: a review and current perspectives. Am J Neuroradiol 15: 1486–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 6.
    Knudson RP, Alden ER (1979) Symptomatic arteriovenous malformation in infants less than 6 month. Pediatrics 64: 238–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 7.
    Martin LV, Benzing G, Kaplan S (1965) Congenital intrahepatic arterio-venous fistula. Ann Surg 161: 209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 8.
    McConnell ME; Aronin P, Vitek JJ (1993) Congestive heart failure in neonates due to intracranial arteriovenous malformation: Endovascular treatment. Pediatr Cardiol 14: 102–106Google Scholar
  132. 9.
    Prenninger TJ, Stanton BP, Burrows PE (1995) Vascular Anomalies. In: Emmanouilides GC, Allen HD, Riemenschneider TA, Gutgesell HP (eds) Moss and Adams, Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Williams und Wilkins, Baltimore Philadelphia Hongkong London Munich Sydney Tokyo, pp 791–810Google Scholar
  133. 10.
    Turjman F, Massoud TF, Vinuela F, Sayre JW (1994) Aneurysms related to cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Superselective angiographic assessment in 58 patients. Am J Neuroradiol 15: 1601–1605PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Schmaltz
  • J. Apitz
  • H. Singer
  • G. Wagner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations