Advertisement

Reptiles Return to the Sea

  • Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Chapter

Abstract

At the time that the mammal-like reptiles were making their mark on land and the thecodonts were giving rise to novel forms culminating in the aptly named “ruling reptiles,” the dinosaurs, other advanced groups of terrestrial reptiles did a complete about-turn with an evolutionary journey back to the sea. Some of the proposals for this dramatic occurrence are severe competition on land for food resources on the one hand, and the lure of a plentiful supply of fish in the sea on the other (Lingham-Soliar 2003).

Keywords

Posterior Limb Marine Turtle Anterior Limb Marine Reptile Posterior Wing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bricknell I (1987) Palaeopathology of pleistocene proboscideans in Britain. Modern Geol 2:295–309Google Scholar
  2. Camper AG (1800) Lettre de AG Camper- G Cuvier sur le ossements fossiles de la montagne de St. Pierre, Maestricht. J Phys Chim D’hist Nat 51:278–291Google Scholar
  3. Camper AG (1812) Memoire sur quelques parties moins connues du squelette des sauriens fossiles de Maestricht. Annls Mus Hist nat 19:215–214Google Scholar
  4. Camper P (1786) Conjectures relative to the petrifactions found in St Peters mountain near Maastricht. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 76:443–456Google Scholar
  5. Carpenter K, Sanders F, Reed B, Reed J, Larson P (2010) Plesiosaur swimming as interpreted from skeletal analysis and experimental results. Trans Kansas Acad Sci 113:1–34. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1660/062.113.0201 Google Scholar
  6. Conybeare WD (1824) Additional notices on the fossil genera Icthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus. Trans Geol Soc Lond 2:103–123Google Scholar
  7. Edmund AG (I960) Tooth replacement phenomena in the lower vertebrates. Contr Life Sci Div R Ont Mus 52:1–90Google Scholar
  8. Faujas de Saint-Fond B (1799) Histoire naturelle de la montagne de Saint-Pierre d Maestricht. ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Feldkamp D (1987) Foreflipper propulsioni n the Californian sea lion Zalophus californianus. J Zool Lond 2l2:43–57Google Scholar
  10. Frey E, Riess J (1987) Consideration concerning plesiosaur locomotion. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paliiontobgie Abhandlungen 164:193–194Google Scholar
  11. Godfrey SI (1984) Plesiosaur subaqueous locomotion: a reappraisal. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie Mh 1984:661–672Google Scholar
  12. Hall BK (ed) (2007) Fins into limbs: evolution, development and transformation. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  13. Harris S (1978) Injuries to foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in suburban London. J Zool Lond 186:567–572Google Scholar
  14. Halstead LB (1989) Plesiosaur locomotion. J Geol Soc 146:37–40. doi:  10.1144/gsjgs.146.1.0037
  15. Hawkins TH (1840) The Book of the great sea-dragons, ichthyosauri and plesiosauri gedolim taninum of moses. Extinct Monsters of the Ancient Earth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Irwin CR, Ferguson MWJ (1986) Fracture repair of reptilian dermal bones: can reptiles form secondary cartilage. J Anat 146:53–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee SY, Bell GL Jr, Caldwell MW (1999) The origin of snake feeding. Nature 400:655–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lindgren J, Caldwell MW, Konishi T, Chiappe LM (2010) Convergent evolution in aquatic tetrapods: insights from an exceptional fossil mosasaur. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11998. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011998 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindgren J, Everhart MJ, Caldwell MW (2011) Three-dimensionally preserved integument reveals hydrodynamic adaptations in the extinct marine lizard Ectenosaurus (Reptilia, Mosasauridae). PLoS ONE 6(11):e27343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027343 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lighthill J (1975) Mathematical biofluid dynamics. Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, PhiladelphiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lingham-Soliar T (1991a) Predation in mosasaurs—a functional approach. Natural structures, principles, strategies and models in architecture. Proc SFB 230:169–177Google Scholar
  22. Lingham-Soliar T (1991b) Locomotion in mosasaurs. Modern Geol 16:229–248Google Scholar
  23. Lingham-Soliar T (1992a) The tylosaurine mosasaurs of Europe and Africa. Bull Inst R Sci nat Belg 62:171–194Google Scholar
  24. Lingham-Soliar T (1992b) A new mode of locomotion in mosasaurs: subaqueous flying in Plioplatecarpus marshi. J Vertebr Paleontol 12:405–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lingham-Soliar T (1994) The cretaceous-tertiary extinction—a catastrophe. Biologist 41:215–218Google Scholar
  26. Lingham-Soliar T (1995a) Anatomy and functional morphology of the largest marine reptile known, Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Mosasauridae, Reptilia) from the upper Cretaceous, upper Maastrichtian of the Netherlands. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 347:155–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lingham-soliar T (1995b) Nothosaurier und die evolution der plesiosaurier. In: Liebau A, Westphal F (eds.) Schwimmsaurier. Ausstellungskataloge der Universtat Tubingen 24:19–26Google Scholar
  28. Lingham-Soliar T (1999a) Rare soft tissue preservation showing fibrous structures in an ichthyosaur from the Lower Lias (Jurassic) of England. Proc R Soc B 266:2367–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lingham-Soliar T (1999b) What happened 65 million years ago. Science Spectra 17:20–29Google Scholar
  30. Lingham-Soliar T (2000) Is the four-wing problem real or merely an atheoretical exercise? N Jb Geol Paläont Abh 217:45–87Google Scholar
  31. Lingham-Soliar T (2001) The ichthyosaur integument: skin fibers, a means for a strong, flexible and smooth skin. Lethaia 34:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lingham-Soliar T (2002) The first occurrence of premaxillary caniniform teeth in the Varanoidea: Presence in the extinct mosasaur Goronyosaurus (Squamata: Mosasauridae) and its paleoecological implications. Lethaia 35:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lingham-Soliar T (2003) Extinction of ichthyosaurs: a catastrophic or evolutionary paradigm? N Jb Geol Paläont Abh 228:421–452Google Scholar
  34. Lingham-Soliar T (2004) Palaeopathology and injury in the extinct mosasaurs (Lepidosauromorpha, Squamata) and implications for modern reptiles. Lethaia 37:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lingham-Soliar T (2012) The evolution of the feather: Sinosauropteryx, life, death and preservation of an alleged feathered dinosaur. J Ornithol 153:699–711. doi: 10.1007/s10336-011-0787-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lingham-Soliar T, Plodowski G (2007) Taphonomic evidence for high-speed adapted fins in thunniform ichthyosaurs. Naturwissenschaften 94:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lingham-Soliar T, Reif WE (1998) Taphonomic evidence for fast tuna-like swimming in Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs. N Jb Geol Paläont Abh 207:171–183Google Scholar
  38. Lingham-Soliar T, Wesley-Smith J (2008) First investigation of the collagen D-band ultrastructure in fossilized vertebrate integument. Proc R Soc Lond B 275:2207–2212. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lingham-Soliar T, Murugan N (2013) A new helical crossed-fibre structure of β-keratin in flight feathers and its biomechanical implications. Plos One 8(6):e65849Google Scholar
  40. Martill DM (1993) Soupy substrates: a medium for the exceptional preservation of ichthyosaurs of the Posidonia shale (Lower Jurassic) of Germany. Kaupia 2:77–97Google Scholar
  41. Martill DM (1995) An ichthyosaur with preserved soft tissue from the Sinemurian of southern England. Palaeontology 38:897–903Google Scholar
  42. Massare JA (1988) Swimming capabilities of Mesozoic marine reptiles: implications for method of predation. Paleobiology 14:187–205Google Scholar
  43. McGowan C (1992) Dinosaurs, spitfires and sea dragons. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. McGowan C, Motani R (2003) Ichthyopterygia, handbook of paleoherpetology 8. Verlag Dr Friedrich Pfeil, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  45. Motani R (1999) Phylogeny of the ichthyopterygia. J Vertebr Paleontol 19:472–495. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/people/motani/ichthyo/phylogeny.html Google Scholar
  46. Motta PJ (1977) Anatomy and functional morphology of dermal collagen fibres in sharks. Copeia 1977:454–464Google Scholar
  47. Robinson JA (1975) The locomotion of plesiosaurs. N Jb Geol Paläont Abh 149:286–332Google Scholar
  48. Robinson JA (1977) Intracorporal force transmission in plesiosaurs. N Jb Geol Paläont Abh 153:86–128Google Scholar
  49. Rothschild BM, Martin LD (1993) Paleopathology. Disease in the fossil record. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  50. Sawyer GT, Erickson BR (1984) Injury and diseases in fossil animals. Bull Field Mus Nat Hist 58:20–25Google Scholar
  51. Snow FH (1878) On the dermal covering of a mosasauroid reptile. Trans Kansas Acad Sci 6:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tarlo LB (1958) The scapula of Pliosauncs macrornem Phillips. Palaeontology1:193–199Google Scholar
  53. Tarsitano S, Riess J (1982) Plesiosaur locomotion—underwater flight versus rowing. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abh 164:188–192Google Scholar
  54. Wainwright SA, Vosburgh F, Hebrank JH (1978) Shark skin: function in locomotion. Science 202:747–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Watson DMS (1924) The elasmosaurid shoulder-girdle and fore-limb. Proc Zool Soc Lond 2:885–917Google Scholar
  56. Williston SW (1899) Some additional characters of mosasaurs. Kans Univ Q 8:39–41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations