The First Vertebrates, Jawless Fishes, the Agnathans

  • Theagarten Lingham-Soliar


Vertebrates arose over 500 million years ago (MYA) but traces of their appearance only occur during the Ordovician period about 460 MYA. These primeval, small fish-like vertebrates are popularly known as the ostracoderms and during the 100 million years of their existence they were comprised of about 600 species. Ostracoderms are especially important in the history and evolution of vertebrates.


Lower Devonian Olfactory Organ Lateral Line System Early Vertebrate Glomerular Kidney 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa

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