A reaction is said to involve a secondary kinetic isotope effect when no bond to the isotopic atom is broken or formed in the rate-determining step. A significant effect can be expected only when there is some force constant change between reactant and transition state for normal modes which involve the isotope. This can arise from an alteration in the type of bonding, such as a change in hybridisation, or it can be a change in non-bonding interactions of the isotopic atom, as in steric effects .
KeywordsSpin Exchange Kinetic Isotope Effect Ortho Isomer Pure Benzene Isotopic Atom
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