• P. J. Whitfield


The Acanthocephala represent an entirely parasitic taxon of pseudocoelomate worms. Their general biology has been reviewed by Crompton (1970) and Nicholas (1973). They are all dioecious, gutless endoparasitic helminths utilizing indirect life cycle strategies. Larval ontogenesis takes place in invertebrates after these hosts ingest an acanthor larva within an egg. After passing through an acanthella phase, a resistant, infective stage, the cystacanth develops in the intermediate host body cavity. Vertebrate definitive hosts acquire adult acantho-cephalan infections by ingesting cystacanths within invertebrate prey. Adult worms in such infections are invariably parasites of the intestinal region of the host’s alimentary tract and are attached to the luminal surface of the gut by a penetrative, hook-bearing proboscis.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beermann I, Arai HP, Costerton JW (1974) The ultrastructure of the lemnisci and body wall of Octospinifer macilentus (Acanthocephala). Can J Zool 52:553–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Byram IE, Fisher FM (1973) The absorptive surface of Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) I. Fine structure. Tissue Cell 5:553–579Google Scholar
  3. Byram IE, Fisher FM (1974) The absorptive surface of Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) II. Functional aspects. Tissue Cell 6:24–42Google Scholar
  4. Butterworth PE (1969) The development of the body wall of Polymorphus minutes (Acanthocephala) in its intermediate host, Gammarus pulex. Parasitology 59:373–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crompton DWT (1970) An ecological approach to acanthocephalan physiology. Cambridge Univ Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Crompton DWT, Lee DL (1965) The fine structure of the body wall of Polymorphus minutus (Goeze 1782) (Acanthocephala). Parasitology 55:357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crompton DWT, Lockwood APM (1968) Studies on the absorption and metabolism of D-(U-14C)glucose by Polymorphus minutus (Acanthocephala) in vitro. J Exp Biol 48:411–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Graeber K, Storch V (1978) Elektronmikroskopische und morphometrische Untersuchungen am Integument der Acanthocephala (Aschelminthes). Z Parasitenkd 57:121–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hammond RA (1966) The proboscis mechanism of Acanthocephalus ranae. J Exp Biol 45:203–213Google Scholar
  10. Hammond RA (1967) The fine structure of the trunk and praesoma wall of Acanthocephalus ranae (Schrank 1788) Lühe 1911. Parasitology 57:475–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hammond RA (1968) Some observations on the role of the body wall of Acanthocephalus ranae in lipid uptake. J Exp Biol 48:217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hibbard KM, Cable RM (1968) The uptake and metabolism of tritiated glucose, tyrosine and thymidine by adult Paulisentis fractus Van Cleave and Bangham 1949 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). J Parasitol 54:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hutton TL, Oetinger DF (1980) Morphogenesis of the proboscis hooks of an archiacanthoce-phalan Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser 1811) Travassos, 1915. J Parasitol 66:965–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lackie AM, Lackie JM (1979) Evasion of the insect immune response by Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala): further observations on the origin of the envelope. Parasitology 79:297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee DL (1972) The structure of helminth cuticle. Adv Parasitol 10:347–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lumsden RD (1975) Surface ultrastructure and cytochemistry of parasitic helminths. Exp Parasitol 37:267–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller DM, Dunagan TT (1971) Studies on the rostellar hooks of Macracanthorhynchus hirudin-aceus (Acanthocephala) from swine. Trans Am Microsc Soc 90:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morris SC, Crompton DWT (1982) The origins and evolution of the Acanthocephala. Biol Rev 57:85–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nicholas WL (1973) The biology of the Acanthocephala. Adv Parasitol 11:671–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pappas PW, Read CP (1975) Membrane transport in helminth parasites: a review. Exp Parasitol 37:469–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rothman AH (1967) Ultrastructural enzyme localization on the surface of Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) Exp Parasitol 21:42–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rothman AH, Fisher FM (1964) Permeation of amino acids in Moniliformis and Macracanthorhynchus (Acanthocephala) J Parasitol 50:410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ruff MD, Uglem GL, Read CP (1973) Interactions of Moniliformis dubius with pancreatic enzymes. J Parasitol 59:839–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schramm U (1978) Studies on the ultrastructure of the integument of the rotifer Habrotrocha rosa Donner (Aschelminthes). Cell Tissue Res 189:167–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Starling JA, Fisher FM (1975) Carbohydrate transport in Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) I. The kinetics and specificity of hexose absorption. J Parasitol 61:977–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Starling JA, Fisher FM (1978) Carbohydrate transport in Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala) II. Post-absorptive phosphorylation of glucose and the role of trehalose in accumulation of endogenous glucose reserves. J Comp Physiol 126:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Storch V (1979) Contributions of comparative ultrastructural research to problems of invertebrate evolution. Am Zool 19:637–645Google Scholar
  28. Uglem CL, Read CP (1973) Moniliformis dubius: uptake of leucine and alanine by adults. Exp Parasitol 34:148–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Uglem GL, Pappas PW, Read CP (1973) Surface aminopeptidase in Moniliformis dubius and its relation to amino acid uptake. Parasitology 67:185–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Whitfield PJ (1971) Phylogenetic affinities of Acanthocephala: an assessment of ultrastructural evidence. Parasitology 63:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wright RD, Lumsden RD (1968) Ultrastructural and histochemical properties of the acantho-cephalan epicuticle. J Parasitol 54:1111–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wright RD, Lumsden RD (1969) Ultrastructure of the tegumentary pore-canal system of the acanthocephalan Moniliformis dubius. J Parasitol 55:993–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wright RD, Lumsden RD (1970) The acanthor tegument of Moniliformis dubius. J Parasitol 56:727–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Whitfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoology DepartmentKing’s CollegeStrand, LondonUK

Personalised recommendations