The Contributions of Wet, Fog, and Dry Deposition to the Summer SO42− Flux at Summit, Greenland

Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 30)


Experiments were performed during May-July of the 1993 field season at Summit, Greenland. Real time concentrations of particles greater than 0.5 μm and greater than 0.01 μm were measured with continuous monitors. Filter samplers were used to determine the dally average aerosol SO4 2− concentrations, and impactors were used to determine mass size distributions. Dry deposition velocities for SO4 2− were estimated using surrogate surfaces (symmetric airfoils) and the airborne size distribution data. Snow and fog samples from nearly all of the events occurring during the field season were collected on polyethylene trays. Impactor and real time concentration data indicate that particles > 0.5 μm efficiently serve as nuclei to form fog droplets. Results also show that condensation nuclei > 0.01 μm (CN) are not as greatly affected by fog. Dry deposition velocity estimates using the airfoils are in the range 0.023 cm/s to 0.062 cm/s, 60% greater than values calculated using the airborne size distribution data with a model for deposition to snow. This could be due to differences in the boundary layer resistances of the airfoils and the modeled snow surface; furthermore, calculations using the impactor results assume no particle growth in the viscous sublayer. The contribution of wet, fog, and aerosol dry deposition to the seasonal SO4 2− inventory is estimated as 58% ± 6%, 25% ± 4%, and 17% ± 7%, respectively. These values do not take into consideration the spatial variability caused by the blowing and drifting of surface snow. Results indicate that all three processes should be considered when estimating atmospheric concentrations based on ice core chemical signals.


Deposition Velocity Field Season Snow Surface Viscous Sublayer Coarse Mode 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement du CNRSDomaine UniversitaireSaint Martin d’HèresFrance
  3. 3.Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Air Quality DepartmentFinnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland

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