Acoustical Bubble Spectrometry at Sea
We’ve come a long way since the early 1960s when a prominent oceanographer wrote a memorandum titled “Do Invisible Microbubbles Exist in the Sea?” Our first bubble count at sea used an optical technique . But the optical scattering cross section is at most equal to the geometrical cross section. Therefore, photographic techniques are restricted to small volumes. Furthermore, the optical identification of bubbles in a sea laden with detritus requires at least proof of sphericity. For small bubbles this proof is additionally constrained by the Rayleigh criterion for resolution.
KeywordsWave Height Bubble Radius Phase Fluctuation Speed Fluctuation Geometrical Cross Section
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