• H. Haken
  • A. Mikhailov
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 62)


For a very long time scientific discourse has been dominated by the reductionist paradigm. This saw the goal of science as being the reduction of observed phenomena to the elementary entities occupying the lower levels of the material hierarchy. Hence, an explanation of all biological processes was ultimately sought in terms of chemistry (as is indeed clear in the field of molecular biology) while psychological phenomena were generally attributed to some underlying physiological changes. A consequence of such a paradigm has been a special attention to the contacts between neighbouring disciplines, with a tacit assumption that a science dealing with more fundamental (simpler) entities occupies the superior position. Only basic sciences such as physics or chemistry were expected to have clear mathematical constructions, while disciplines dealing with more complex systems remained essentially descriptive.


Pattern Formation Tacit Assumption Generic Mathematical Model Cooperative Phenomenon Superior Position 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Haken
  • A. Mikhailov

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations