Advertisement

A Two-Mode Clustering Study of Situations and Their Features

  • Thomas Eckes
Part of the Studies in Classification, Data Analysis and Knowledge Organization book series (STUDIES CLASS)

Abstract

In order to examine categorical beliefs about situations typically occuring within the university milieu, 48 students were asked to keep a written record of the situations they encountered over a one-week period. The 30 most frequently mentioned situation labels were presented to an independent group of 34 students for rating on 18 bipolar scales. Mean ratings were arranged in a situation × feature matrix and submitted to a two-mode hierarchical clustering analysis. This analysis aimed at a common representation of situations and features. Nine two-mode clusters were identified showing how subjects gave meaning to classes of social situations. More generally, the two-mode clustering solution was found to illuminate the prototype organization of culturally shared knowledge about everyday situations.

Keywords

Situation Cognition Everyday Situation Bipolar Scale Internal Heterogeneity Categorical Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C.A., and Sedikides, C. (1991), Thinking about People: Contributions of a Typological Alternative to Associationistic and Dimensional Models of Person Perception, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Argyle, M., Furnham, A., and Graham, J.A. (1981), Social Situations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battistich, V.A., and Thompson, E.G. (1980), Students’ Perceptions of the College Milieu: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bem, D.J. (1981), Assessing Situations by Assessing Persons, in: D. Magnusson (ed.), Toward a Psychology of Situations: An Interactional Perspective, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 245–257.Google Scholar
  5. Cantor, N. (1981), Perceptions of Situations: Situation Prototypes and Person-Situation Prototypes, in: D. Magnusson (ed.), Toward a Psychology of Situations: An Interactional Perspective, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 229–244.Google Scholar
  6. D’Andrade, R.G. (1989), Cultural Cognition, in: M.I. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, 795–830.Google Scholar
  7. Eckes, T. (1990), Situationskognition: Untersuchungen zur Struktur von Situationsbegriffen, Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 21, 171–188.Google Scholar
  8. Eckes, T. (1991), Bimodale Clusteranalyse: Methoden zur Klassifikation von Elementen zweier Mengen, Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 38, 201–225.Google Scholar
  9. Eckes, T., and Orlik, P. (1991), An Agglomerative Method for Two-Mode Hierarchical Clustering, in: H.H. Bock and P. Thm (eds.), Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eckes, T., and Orlik, P. (in press), An Error Variance Approach to Two-Mode Hierarchical Clustering, Journal of Classification.Google Scholar
  11. Forgas, J.P. (1976), The Perception of Social Episodes: Categorical and Dimensional Representations in Two Different Social Milieus, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forgas, J.P. (1983), Episode Cognition and Personality: A Multidimensional Analysis, Journal of Personality, 51, 34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kenrick, D.T., and Funder, D.C. (1988), Profiting from Controversy: Lessons from the Person-Situation Debate, American Psychologist, 43, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. King, G.A., and Sorrentino, R.M. (1983), Psychological Dimensions of Goal-Oriented Interpersonal Situations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 140–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krahé, B. (1992), Social Psychology and Personality: Towards a Synthesis, Sage, London.Google Scholar
  16. Magnusson, D. (1974), The Individual in the Situation: Some Studies on Individuals’ Perceptions of Situations, Studia Psychologica, 2, 124–131.Google Scholar
  17. Pervin, L.A. (1976), A Free-Response Description Approach to the Analysis of Person-Situation Interaction, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Powell, R.S., and Juhnke, R.G. (1983), Statistical Models of Implicit Personality Theory: A Comparison, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 911–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Quinn, N., and Holland, D. (1987), Culture and Cognition, in: D. Holland and N. Quinn (eds.), Cultural Models in Language and Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3–40.Google Scholar
  20. Snyder, M., and Ickes, W. (1985), Personality and Social behavior, in: G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, Random House, New York, Vol. 2, 883–947.Google Scholar
  21. Tucker, L.R. (1964), The Extension of Factor Analysis to Three-Dimensional Matrices, in: N. Frederiksen and H. Gulliksen (eds.), Contributions to Mathematical Psychology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 109–127.Google Scholar
  22. Tversky, A. (1977), Features of Similarity, Psychological Review, 84, 327–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Eckes
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich GesellschaftswissenschaftenBergische Universität WuppertalWuppertal 1Germany

Personalised recommendations