Advertisement

The Development of the Pendulum as a Device for Regulating Clocks Prior to the 18th Century

  • S. G. Atwood
Chapter

Abstract

The pendulum, according to Webster’s Third International Dictionary, is: (a) “a body suspended from a fixed point so as to swing to and fro under the action of gravity and commonly used to regulate the movements of clockwork and other machinery;” or (b) “a suspended body that vibrates not by swinging but by rotating, with alternate twisting and untwisting (as the balance wheel of a watch) — called also torsion pendulum.” In the case of the swinging pendulum, the period is constant and more or less independent of the amplitude and of the swing, angular velocity of the swing, and of the mass of the bobbin. Because the pendulum swings with a regular motion of equal periods without regard to amplitude or mass, it is useful as a timekeeper.

Keywords

Simple Pendulum Physical Pendulum Pendulum Swing Circular Error Pendulum Clock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Nicole Oresme: Le livre du ciel et du monde, cited in Piero E. Ariotti: “Aspects of the Conception and Development of the Pendulum in the 17th Century,” Archive for History of Exact sciences, VIII (1972), 340.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Antonio Simoni: “Oddities of Certain Leonardian Codices,” La Clessidra (1971), 20–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacques Besson: Theatre des instrumens mathematiques mecaniques, ed. Francois Beroald (1578), cited in Edwin A Battison: Technology and Culture, VII (1966), 202–5.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Isaac Beeckman: Journal, cited in Ariotti, op. cit., p. 375.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Drummond Robertson: The Evolution of Clockwork, (London: Cassell Co. 1931 ), Chapter V.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silvio A. Bedini: “Saggi Su Galileo,” in Galileo Galilei and the Measure of Time, ed. G. Barbera ( Florence, Italy: Comitato’Nazionale per Le Manifestazioni Celebrative del IV Centario della Nascita di Galileo Galilei 1967 ).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Letter from Galileo to Realio, 5 June 1637, cited in Bedini, “Galileo Galilei,” ibid.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Galilei: L’usage du cadran ou de l’Horloge physique universal, (Paris 1639), cited in Robertson, op. cit., p. 93.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robertson, ibid., p. 82 n2.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bedini, op. cit.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Alan Lloyd: The Collectors Dictionary of Clocks, ( London: Country Life Ltd. 1964 ), 53.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Christiaan Huygens: Horologium, tr. E.L. Edwardes in Antiquarian Horology, VII (1970), 35–55.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ariotti, op. cit., pp. 372–80.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cited in ibid., p. 381. See also Robertson, op. cit., p. 76.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.g., Principia, ed. Florian Cajori, Book I, Prop. LII, Prob. XXIV (Vol. I, p. 157).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Enrico Morpurgo: “Alcuni appunti sugli orologiai Della Volpaia,” La Clessidra (1959).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Enrico Morpurgo: “L’Orologia e il Pendolo,” La Clessidra (1950). 450Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Robertson, op. cit., p. 101.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silvio A. Bedini: Johann Philipp Treffler, Clockmaker of Augsburg, (National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Inc. 1956–57), and a supplement. Bedini: Johann Philipp Treffler, Clockmaker of Augsburg, (National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Inc. 1956–57), and a supplement, “Agent for the Archduke,” Physis, I II (1961).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Oeuvres completes de Christiaan Huygens, (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff 1889–93), Oeuvres 2, p. 109.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Enrico Morpurgo: “Gli Oralogi Notturni E. Guisette Compani,” La Clessidra (1959).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    Winthrop Edey: French Clocks, ( New York: Walker Co. 1967 ), 30–1.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G.A. Baille: Watchmakers and Clockmakers of the World, ( London: Finwell House 1963 ), 16.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Plomp: “The Dutch Extraction of the Fromanteel Family,” Antiquarian Horology, VII (1971), 324. The writer has had the opportunity to review the work and influence of Solomon Coster with Dr. R. Plomp of Holland, who has been most helpful indeed, and has furnished in writing some notes about early Dutch pendulum clocks, which he painstakingly obtained from the correspondence of Christiaan Huygens and other persons.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ronald A. Lee: The First Twelve Years of the English Pendulum Clock or the Fromanteel Family and their Contemporaries, (Guildford, England: Seven Corners Press 1969 ).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lloyd, op. cit., p. 58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. G. Atwood

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations