Advertisement

Nationalism and Internationalism in Sport

  • R. Väyrynen

Abstract

Sport is a social institution which reflects the realities of the society in which it is exercised. The organisation of sport is different in a segmented or polarised society when compared with a fairly unified and homogeneous society. There are a plethora of examples to show that the fragmentation of sports organisations according to class, ethnic or linguistic divisions is rooted in the underlying social and political polarisation of the society. Sports also have their own ideology which ideally stresses fair competition between amateurs on equal terms, but is in reality modified by underlying political and social interests. In a fragmented society sports become an instrument, wrapped in ideological arguments, by means of which various groups in the society try to promote their own goals and interests. From this point of view sports are a form of collective social competition, as well as competition between individuals and teams. This is a conflict perspective of the role of sports in society.

Keywords

Olympic Game Competitive Sport Socialist Country Sport Organisation Team Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ball DW (1972) Olympic Games competition: structural correlates of national success. Int J Comparative Sociology 13 (3–4): 186–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Colwell J (1981) Sociocultural determinants of Olympic success. In: Segrave J, Chu D (eds) Olympism. Stipes, Champaign, pp 245–246, 254–256Google Scholar
  3. Deutsch KW (1953) Nationalism and social communication. An inquiry into the foundations of nationalism M I T. Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  4. Enquist P-O (1972) Släggan ( Hammer ). StockholmGoogle Scholar
  5. Foltz WJ (1981) Modernization and nation-building: the social mobilization model reconsidered. In: Merritt RL, Russett BM (eds) From national development to global community. Essays in honor of Karl W. Deutsch. Allen and Unwin, Boston, pp 25–45Google Scholar
  6. Heikkinen A (1981) Kansallisurheilun suuri nousu. Suomen hiihtourheilun laajuus, yhteiskunnalliset tavoitteet ja merkitys 1918–1940. (The great rise of the national sport. The extent, social goals and significance of the skiing sports in Finland, 1918–1940.) Liikuntiateellinen Seura, LappeenrantaGoogle Scholar
  7. Heinilä K (1963) Kilpaurheilun teoria. (Theory of competitive sports.) Helsingin yliopisto. Sosiologian laitos. Tutkimuksia 33Google Scholar
  8. Kiviaho P, Mäkelä P (1978) Olympic success: a sum of non-material and material factors. Int Rev Sport Sociology 13 (2): 5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lasch C (1978) The culture of narcism: American life in an age of expectations. Norton, New York Levine N (1974) Why do countries win Olympic medals? Some structural correlates of Olympic Games success: 1972. Sociology and Social Research 58 (4): 356–358Google Scholar
  10. Lipsky R (1979) Political implications of sports teams symbolism. Politics and Society 9 (1):61–88 Natan A (1969) Sport and politics. In: Loy JAY Jr, Kenyon GS (eds) Sport, culture and society. Macmillan, New York, pp 203–210Google Scholar
  11. Reiter R (ed) (1976) Sport in der Bundeswehr. Offene Worte, HerfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Schumacher J (1936) Die Finnen, das große Sportvolk. Limpert, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. Seppänen P (1970) The role of competitive sports in different societies. Institute of Sociology. University of Helsinki, Research Reports 151Google Scholar
  14. Seppänen P (1981) Olympic success: a cross-national perspective. In: Luschen GR, Sage GH (eds) Handbook of social sciences of sport. Stipes, Champaign, Ill., pp 93–118Google Scholar
  15. Ström L-I (1977) Idrott och politik. Idrottsrörelsens politiska roll i Tredje riket, DDR och Förbundsrepubliken. (Sport and politics. The political role of sports movements in the Third Reich, GDR and the Federal Republik of Germany.) Rabén & Sjogren, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  16. Tappert J, Jodl H (1973) Körperertüchtigung und Sport für die sozialistische Landesverteidigung. Militärverlag der DDR, Berlin, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  17. Toohey DP, Warning K (1981) Nationalism: inevitable and incurable. In: Segrave J, Chu D (eds) Olympism. Stipes, Champaign, Ill., pp 118–126Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Väyrynen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations