Advertisement

Abstract

This article will be restricted to the use of isotopes in those aspects of mitochondrial metabolism which are truly specific for mitochondria and for which isotopes have proved to be particularly useful tools. These categories include the turnover of mitochondrial components, the concentration and turnover of lowmolecular-weight compounds and ions by mitochondria, and the synthesis and turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the mitochondria. Now, at first glance it would appear that the use of isotopes in many of these cases is redundant to the use of previously-used biochemical methods, for we can measure an increase in the amounts of many of the mitochondrial products of metabolism. However, as in the case of investigations into other aspects of metabolism, it has been found that measurements of the net syntheses or degradations of compounds tell us only little about the intermediate reactions involved. Thus, the use of isotopes has made it possible to discern, first, that there are indeed intermediate steps involved, and secondly, has led to much more detailed information concerning metabolic sequences. I hope to illustrate these points as I consider the various aspects I have outlined above; particularly, the use of isotopes in elucidating the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondria. Because of the great number of papers involved with mitochondrial metabolism, the bibliography, while complete with regard to papers in which the use of isotopes has been mentioned, will be only partially complete with reference to other papers in which no isotopes were used.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Amoore, J. E., and W. Bartley: The permeability of isolated rat liver mitochondria to sucrose, sodium chloride and potassium chloride at 0°. Biochem. J. 69, 223 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartley, W.: Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation during the oxidation of pyruvate. Biochem. J. 54, 677 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartley, W.: Metabolism of thiamine phosphates in washed suspensions of kidney particles. Biochem. J. 56, 379 (1954 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartley, W.: The formation of phosphorpyruvate by washed suspensions of sheep kidney particles. Biochem. J. 56, 387 (1954b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartley, W.and J. E. Amoore: The effect of manganese on the solute content of rat-liver mitochondria. Biochem. J. 69, 348 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartley, W.and R. E. Davies: Active transport of ions by sub-cellular particles. Biochem. J. 57, 37 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger, M.: Studies on the distribution of potassium in the rat liver cell and the mechanism of potassium accumulation. Biochim. biophys. Acta 23, 504 (1957).Google Scholar
  8. Beyer, R. E., J. Glomset and T. Beyer: The production of 32P-labeled mitochondrial nucleotides. Biochim. biophys. Acta 18, 292 (1955).Google Scholar
  9. Boyer, P. D., A. B. Falcone and W. H. Harrison: Reversal and mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. Nature (Loud.) 174, 401 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyer, P. D., W. W. Luchsinger and A. B. Falcone: 018 and P32 exchange reactions of mitochondria in relation to oxidative phosphorylation. J. biol. Chem. 223, 405 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bronk, J. R., and W. W. Kielley: Evidence for the point of action of 2,4-dinitrophenol on ATPase, ATP-32P exchange and phosphorylation. Biochim. biophys. Acta 29, 369 (1957).Google Scholar
  12. Chance, B., and G. R. Williams: Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Advanc.Google Scholar
  13. Enzymol. 17, 65 (1956).Google Scholar
  14. Cohn, M.: A study of oxidative phosphorylation with 018-labeled inorganic phosphate. J. biol. Chem. 201, 735 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohn, M. and G. R. Drysdale: A study with 0“ of adenosine triphosphate formation in oxidative phosphorylation. J. biol. Chem. 216, 831 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper, C., and A. L. Lehninger: Oxidative phosphorylation by an enzyme complex from the extracts of mitochondria. IV. Adenosinetriphosphatase activity. J. biol. Chem. 224, 547 (1957 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, C., and A. L. Lehninger: Oxidative phosphorylation by an enzymatic complex from extracts of mitochondria. V. The adenosine tri phosphate exchange reaction. J. biol. Chem. 224, 561 (1957 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Crane, R. K., and F. Lipmann: The effect of arsenate on aerobic phosphorylation. J. biol. Chem. 201, 235 (1953 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crane, R. K., and F. Lipmann: The relationship of mitochondrial phosphate to aerobic phosphate bond generation. J. biol. Chem. 201, 245 (1953b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eggleston, L. V., and D. H. Williamson: The turnover rates of the phosphate groups of flavin-adenine dinucleotide and adenosine triphosphate during oxidative phosphorylation. Biochem. J. 56, 250 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ernster, L., M. Ljungren and O. Lindberg: Studies on the turnover rate of ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. Acta Chem. scand. 8, 658 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ernster, L., R. Zetterstrom and O. Lindberg: A method for the determination of tracer phosphate in biological material. Acta chem. scand. 4, 942 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Friedkin, M., and A. L. Lehninger: Oxidation-coupled incorporation of inorganic radio-phosphate into phospholipide and nucleic acid in a cell-free system. J. biol. Chem. 177, 775 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Green, D. E., W. A. Atchley, J. Nordmann and L. J. Teply: Studies on the cyclophorase system. XII. Incorporation of Pia. Arch. Biochem. 24, 359 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Griffiths, M., and N. Pace: Intracellular phosphorus turnover in the rat liver cell. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 83, 771 (1953).Google Scholar
  26. Griswold, R. L., and N. Pace: The intracellular distribution of metal ions in rat liver. Exp. Cell. Res. 11, 362 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kennedy, E. P.: Synthesis of phosphatides in isolated mitochondria. J. biol. Chem. 201, 399 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kiessling, K. H.: The incorporation of 3213 into mitochondria) thiamine diphosphate in the presence of different substrates and inhibitors. Acta chem. scand. 11, 1062 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krebs, H. A., A. Ruffo, M. Johnson, L. V. Eggleston and R. Hems: Oxidative Phospho-rylation. Biochem. J. 54, 107 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, K. H., and J. J. Eiler: Studies in oxidative phosphorylation with radioactive phosphate p. 705, I. Exchange of phosphate in an acceptor-free system. p. 719, II. Mechanism of the phosphate exchange. J. biol. Chem. 203 (1953).Google Scholar
  31. Lehninger, A. L.: Oxidative phosphorylation. Harvey Lect. 49, 176 (1953–54).Google Scholar
  32. Lehninger, A. L. C. L. Wadkins, C. Cooper, T. M. Devlin and J. L. Gamble JR.: Oxidative phosphorylation. Science 128, 450 (1958).Google Scholar
  33. Lindberg, O., and L. Ernster: Determination of organic phosphorus compounds by phosphate analysis, methods Biochem. Analysis 3, 1 (1956).Google Scholar
  34. Lindberg, O., and L. Ernster: On the mechanism of phosphorylative energy transfer in mitochondria. Exp. Cell Res. 3, 209 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Löw, H., P. Siekevitz, L. Ernster and O. Lindberg: Studies on the relation of the adenosine triphosphate-inorganic phosphate exchange reaction of mitochondria to oxidative phosphorylation. Biochim. biophys. Acta 29, 392 (1958).Google Scholar
  36. Lumb, G. A.: Selective uptake of radiochemical impurities by mitochondria. Nature (Lond.) 181, 132 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Macfarlane, M. G., and A. G. Spencer: Changes in the Water, sodium and potassium content of rat-liver mitochondria during metabolism. Biochem. J. 54, 569 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Marinetti, G. V., J. Erbland, M. Albrecht and E. Stotz: The in vitro incorporation of 32P-labelled orthophosphate into the phosphatides of isolated rat liver mitochondria. Biochim. biophys. Acta 26, 130 (1957).Google Scholar
  39. Maynard, L. S., and G. Cotzias: The partition of manganese among organs and intracellular organelles of the rat. J. biol. Chem. 214, 489 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nielsen, S. O., and A. L. Lehninger: Phosphorylation coupled to the oxidation of ferro-cytochrome c. J. biol. Chem. 215, 555 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ogata, K., H. Nohara, T. Morita and K. Kawai: The incorporation of phosphorus from P32-labeled cocarboxylase into adenosine triphosphate by rat liver homogenate and cyclophorase system. J. Biochem. (Japan) 42, 13 (1955).Google Scholar
  42. Plaut, G. W. E.: A soluble enzyme from mitochondria catalyzing an exchange between inorganic phosphate and adenosine triphosphate. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 69, 320 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pressman, B. C., and H. A. Lardy: Influence of potassium and other alkali cations on respiration of mitochondria. J. biol. Chem. 197, 547 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Price, C. A., A. Fonnesu, and R. E. Davies: Movements of water and ions in mitochondria. Biochem. J. 64, 754 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Siekevitz, P., and V. R. Potter: Biochemical structure of mitochondria. I. Intramitochondrial components and oxidative phosphorylation. J. biol. Chem. 215, 221 (1955 a).Google Scholar
  46. Siekevitz, P., and V. R. Potter: Biochemical structure of mitochondria. II. Radioactive labeling of intramitochondrial nucleotides during oxidative phosphorylation. J. biol. Chem. 215, 237 (1955 b).Google Scholar
  47. Slater, E. C.: Mechanism of phosphorylation in the respiratory chain. Nature (Lund.) 172, 975 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Slater, E. C. and K. W. Cleland: The calcium content of isolated heart-muscle sarcomes. Biochem. J. 54, XXII (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Spencer, A. G.: Electrolyte flux in isolated mitochondria. Proc. roy. Soc. London, B 141, 268 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stanbury, S. W., and G. H. Mudge: Potassium metabolism of liver mitochondria. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 82, 675 (1953).Google Scholar
  51. Swanson, M. A.: Studies on the non-oxidative exchange between inorganic phosphate and ATP, as catalyzed by intact mitochondria. Biochim. biophys. Acta 20, 85 (1956).Google Scholar
  52. Szafarz, D., L. Wyssmann et Y. Kxouvine: Epithélioma atypique du rat. IV. Etude in vitro de la fraction phosphorée acido-soluble des mitochondries du tissue cancéreux vivant. Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 39, 1233 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Txuers, R. E., and B. L. Vallee: Distribution of metals in subcellular fraction of rat liver. J. biol. Chem. 226, 911 (1957).Google Scholar
  54. Vignais, P., P. Vignais and W. Bartley: Oxidation of isocitrate and associated phosphorylations. Biochem. J. 65, 396 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Werkneiser, W. C., and W. Bartley: The study of steady-state concentrations of internal solutes of mitochondria by rapid centrifugal transfer to a fixation medium. Biochem. J. 66, 79 (1957).Google Scholar
  56. Whittam, R., W. Bartley and G. Weber: The kinetics of the exchange of the phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate during oxidative phosphorylation. Biochem. J. 59, 590 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Yagi, K., Y. Matsuoka et Y. Khuovine: Epithelioma atypique du rat. V. Phosphorylations oxydatives des mitochondries du tissu cancéreux vivant, Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 39, 1243 (1957).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Siekevitz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations