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Theory of Heat pp 302-343 | Cite as

Fluctuations and Brownian Motion

  • Richard Becker

Abstract

In thermodynamics the difference in entropy of two states I and II is given by
$${S_{II}} - {S_I} = {\left( {\int\limits_I^{II} {\frac{{\delta Q}}{T}} } \right)_{rev}}$$
(73.1)
where δQ is the heat supplied. The index “rev” means that the transition from I to II has to be carried out in a reversible way. If the quantum mechanical ground state E0 of the system is nondegenerate, the quantum theoretical phase volume Φ(E) approaches 1 for E just above E0, which means that the entropy, S & klnΦ, approaches zero. The entropy of the ground state can then be normalized to zero and one can define an absolute value of S by starting from the ground state E0 or from \(T = 0\left( {{S_1} = {S_{{E_o}}} = 0} \right)\):
$${S_{II}} = \int\limits_I^{II} {\frac{{\delta Q}}{T}} $$
(73.1a)
.

Keywords

Brownian Motion Diffusion Equation Spectral Distribution Shot Noise Cavity Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1955

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität GöttingenGermany

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