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A Reference Energy System (RES) is a way of representing the activities and relationships of an energy system, depicting estimated energy demands, energy conversion technologies, fuel mixes, and the resources required to satisfy those demands.2 The pictorial format for the Reference Energy System is a network diagram which indicates energy flows and the associated conversion efficiencies of the technologies employed in various stages of the nergy system. A simplified RES is shown in Figure 3.1. For each energy resource, a complete reference Energy System specifies the technologies employed in the following activities.
KeywordsEnergy Demand Rural Household Dominican Republic Relative Effectiveness Brookhaven National Laboratory
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- 1.This section is adapted from “An Analytical Framework for the Assessment of Energy Resources and Technology Options in Developing Countries” BNL 50800, Brookhaven National Laboratory.Google Scholar
- 2.The Reference Energy System approach was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1971 for energy R&D assessment and has been extended for various analyses since that time. For a complete discussion, see e.g. Beller, (1975.)Google Scholar
- 3.The term “commercial” energy generally refers to energy forms normally actively traded in developed country markets such as oil, gas, coal and electricity. The primary categories of “noncommercial” energy are wood, agricultural wastes, and animal dung. The term “noncommercial” is in fact a misnomer, since there are monetary markets for these fuels. In some contexts, the term must be extended to include human and animal power. Other terms sometimes used for “noncommercial” are “traditional,” “primitive” (vs. “modern”) or “nonconventional” (vs. “conventional”).Google Scholar
- 4.The relative effectiveness of electric space heating, for example, includes the effect of different use patterns, and the assumed insulation levels.Google Scholar
- 5.Obviously there will be problems of intersectoral consistency in such adjustments; much of the later discussion of input-output analysis (Chapter 6) is driven by the need to achieve end-use demand consistency.Google Scholar
- 6.Documented in both German and U.S. reports: “Energy Technology Data Handbook, Vol I; Conversion Technologies” Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, JUL-SPEZ-70, January 1980 and “Technology Review Report, IEA Energy Systems Analysis Project, BNL 27074, Brookhaven National Laboratory, December 1979.Google Scholar
- 7.R. Malotie and A. Reisman “Less Developed Countries Energy System Network Simulator LDC ESNS”, BNL 50836, Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 1978.Google Scholar
- 8.A software package called RESGEN, developed by International Development and Energy Associates (IDEA), is now used in the EMTP.Google Scholar
- 9.Energy Development International et al., “Energy Strategies for the Dominican Republic Report of the National Energy Assessment,” September 1980.Google Scholar