• Mario Bunge
Part of the Studies in the Foundations Methodology and Philosophy of Science book series (FOUNDATION, volume 3/2)


The basic empirical procedure is observation. Both measurement and experiment involve observation, whereas the latter is often done without quantitative precision (i.e. without measuring) and without deliberately changing the values of certain variables (i.e. without experimenting). The object of observation is, of course, an actual fact; the outcome of an act of observation is a datum — a singular or an existential proposition expressing some traits of the result of observing. A natural order to follow is, then: fact, observation, and datum. Our discussion will close with an examination of the function of observation in science.


Sense Data Scientific Data Definite Description Objective Fact Observable Fact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Bunge
    • 1
  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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