- 173 Downloads
The basic empirical procedure is observation. Both measurement and experiment involve observation, whereas the latter is often done without quantitative precision (i.e. without measuring) and without deliberately changing the values of certain variables (i.e. without experimenting). The object of observation is, of course, an actual fact; the outcome of an act of observation is a datum — a singular or an existential proposition expressing some traits of the result of observing. A natural order to follow is, then: fact, observation, and datum. Our discussion will close with an examination of the function of observation in science.
KeywordsSense Data Scientific Data Definite Description Objective Fact Observable Fact
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ayer, A. J.: The problem of knowledge, Ch. 3. London: Penguin Books 1956.Google Scholar
- Blanshard, B.: The nature of thought, 2 vols., especially Book I. London: Allen &Unwin; New York: MacMillan 1939.Google Scholar
- Bunge, M.: Metascientific queries, especially Chs. 5, 6 and 8. Springfield, I11.:Charles C. Thomas 1959.Google Scholar
- Daedalus 87, No 4 (1958): issue On evidence and inference, particularly M. Deutsch,Evidence and inference in nuclear research and P. F. Lazarsfeld, Evidence and inference in social research.Google Scholar
- Frank P.(ed.):The validation of scientific theories. Boston: The Beacon Press 1956.Google Scholar
- Hanson, N. R.: Patterns of discovery: An inquiry into the conceptual foundations of science, Chs. i. and ii. Cambridge: University Press 1958.Google Scholar
- Körner, S. (Ed.): Observation and interpretation. London: Butterworth Scientific Publications 1957; New York: Dover 1962.Google Scholar
- Lenzen, V. F.: Procedures of empirical science, vol. I, No 5 of the International encyclopedia of unified science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1938.Google Scholar
- Lewis, C. I.: An analysis of knowledge and valuation. La Salle, I11.: Open Court 1946.Google Scholar
- Russell, B.: An inquiry into meaning and truth, especially Chs. XXI and XXII. London: Allen &Unwin 1940.Google Scholar
- Sellars, W.: Science, perception, and reality. New York: Humanities Press 1963.Google Scholar
- Waismann, F.: Verifiability. In: A. Flew (Ed.), Logic and language, I. Oxford: Blackwell 1951.Google Scholar