Dispersion and Absorption of Sound in High Polymers

Part of the Encyclopedia of Physics / Handbuch der Physik book series (HDBPHYS, volume 3 / 11 / 1)


High polymer materials exist in the form of liquids, rubbers, and solids depending on the temperature, the length of the polymer chain and the degree of cross bonding to other polymer chains. Even in the solid state, materials such as polyethylene and nylon may be partly crystalline with liquid-like regions joining the crystalline regions. The liquid-like structure of rubbers accounts for their ability to stretch, and it is this feature, coupled with the use of carbon black, that causes them to wear so well in automobile tires. Plastics and rubbers are the materials that can take the greatest strains without fatigueing; and they outwear such materials as metals and glasses. Toughness, mechanical shock resistance, ultimate elongation and strength are determined by the ease with which the polymer molecules can be displaced without breaking the piece. It is no accident that polymer substances are used in body armor to deflect bullets.


Internal Friction Natural Rubber Intrinsic Viscosity Characteristic Impedance Chain Segment 
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