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Microwaves are Hertzian waves ranging in length from about thirty centimeters to a fraction of a millimeter, or in frequency from about one billion1 to five hundred billion cycles per second. The microwave region is thus the billion cycle range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its low-frequency border is the upper megacycle range where ordinary radio tubes and circuits become ineffective and where the hollow cavity and waveguide components of the microwave region must be adopted. Its high-frequency border, the upper submillimeter wavelengths, is the region where tunable sources and detectors which characterize radio waves become ineffective and where optical and semi-optical infrared methods must be adopted.
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