Recombination in Sexually and Asexually Propagated Higher Plants

  • Wolfgang Friedt
  • Gerhard Wenzel
Part of the Progress in Botany/Fortschritte der Botanik book series (BOTANY, volume 47)


The exchange of genetic material (DNA) between homologous chromosomes can either be reciprocal (recombination) or nonreciprocal (gene conversion). Both phenomena are essential for the creation of new genetic variability (LAMB 1984) and they seem to be initiated by identical, complex molecular processes. These involve the action of various enzymes in the following model of genetic recombination: (1) Bringing together of homologous DNA-double helices (conjugation). (2) Induction of single-strand breaks (nicks) in one or both of the helices; this involves specific nicking enzymes. (3) Separation of the two sister strands (unwinding). (4) Guiding of the free end to its homolog, de-naturation and unwinding of the latter. (5) Promotion of full integration of the new strand into the receptor helix. Termination of the processes at this stage results in nonreciprocal “recombination” (gene conversion). The process can also proceed (6), e.g., by the action of recombination enzymes associated with ellipsoidal recombination nodules at the exchange site (CARPENTER, 1984; FINCHAM, 1984). In this case, the replaced strand itself can become integrated into the former donor helix by the same procedure as described before. This reciprocal exchange, which was shown in E. coli to be mediated by RecA protein (HOWARD-FLANDERS et al., 1984), would lead to recombination intermediates via strand isomerization (7), i.e., symmetrical cross-strand structures referred to as HOLLIDAY junctions (HOLLIDAY MODEL of recombination, HOLLIDAY, 1964). This structure is untied by the action of endonucle-ases (8), as recently demonstrated with phage DNA (HSU and LANDY, 1984; CRAIG, 1984) (Fig. 1).


Transposable Element Chromosome Pairing Gene Conversion Somaclonal Variation Potato Leaf Roll Virus 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Friedt
    • 1
  • Gerhard Wenzel
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Pflanzenzüchtung, Institut für Pflanzenbau und Pf1anzenzüchtungJustus-Liebig-UniversitätGießenGermany
  2. 2.Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land-und ForstwirtschaftInstitut für ResistenzgenetikGrünbachGermany

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