Venoms and Venom Apparatuses of the Formicidae: Myrmeciinae, Ponerinae, Dorylinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Myrmicinae, and Formicinae

  • M. S. Blum
  • H. R. Hermann
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology / Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie book series (HEP, volume 48)


Ants, in the majority of subfamilies, are capable of stinging; in many cases, the reactions of human beings to such stings are severe enough to require immediate medical treatment. Because of their virtual ubiquity, ants constitute arthropods of considerable medical importance, although their role in inflicting stings is often unrecognized because of their relative inconspicuousness vis-à-vis flying hymenopterans such as bees and wasps. In all probability the venom arsenals of ants are highly varied but in addition, these insects also possess other exocrine glands which can be discharged during defensive encounters.


Mandibular Gland Alarm Pheromone Venom Gland Venom Component Metapleural Gland 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 1978

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  • M. S. Blum
  • H. R. Hermann

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