The Anatomy and Pathology of the Neuromuscular Junction

  • Ruth E. M. Bowden
  • L. W. Duchen
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 42)


Knowledge of the structure of the neuromuscular junction is essential for an understanding of the processes of transmission and the interrelationship between the nervous system and striated muscle. Correlation between morphological, physiological, pharmacological and biophysical research in experimental and clinical conditions has contributed fruitfully to present knowledge.


Schwann Cell Botulinum Toxin Synaptic Vesicle Neuromuscular Transmission Tetanus Toxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abo-El-Enene, M. A.: Functional anatomy of the larynx. Ph. D. Thesis, University of London, 1967.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, J.T.: Growth of nerve implants in voluntary muscles. J. Anat. (Lond.) 84, 38–49 (1950).Google Scholar
  3. Akert, K., Sandri, C.: An electron-microscopic study of zinc iodide-osmium impregnation of neurons. I. Staining of synaptic vesicles at cholinergic junctions. Brain Res. 7, 286–295 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allbrook, D.: An electron microscopic study of regenerating skeletal muscle. J. Anat. (Lond.) 96, 137–152 (1962).Google Scholar
  5. Ambache, N.: The peripheral action of Cl. Botulium toxin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 108, 127–141 (1949).Google Scholar
  6. Ambache, N.: A further study of the action of Clostridium Botulinum toxin upon different types of autonomic nerve fibre. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 113, 1–17 (1951).Google Scholar
  7. Ambache, N.: Effect of botulinum toxin upon the superior cervical ganglion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 116, 9P (1952).Google Scholar
  8. Ambache, N., Morgan, R.S., Wright, G.P.: The action of tetanus toxin on the rabbit’s iris. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 107, 45–53 (1948).Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, M.J., Cohen, M.W.: Fluorescent staining of acetylcholine receptors in vertebrate skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 237, 385–400 (1974).Google Scholar
  10. Andersson-Cedergren, E.: Ultrastructure of motor end plate and sarcoplasmic components of mouse skeletal muscle fiber as revealed by three-dimensional reconstructions from serial sections. J. Ultrastruct. Res, Suppl. 1, 5–181 (1959).Google Scholar
  11. Anzenbacher, H., Zenker, W.: Über die Größenbeziehung der Muskelfasern und ihrer Endplatten. Z. Zellforsch. 60, 860–871 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Augustinsson, K.B.: Classification and comparative enzymology of the cholinesterases and methods for their determination. In: Koelle, G.B. (Ed.): Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie, Vol. 15, pp. 89–128. Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1963.Google Scholar
  13. Bagust, J., Lewis, D.M., Westerman, R. A.: Polyneuronal innervation of kitten skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 229, 241–255 (1973).Google Scholar
  14. Barker, D., Ip, M.C.: A silver method for demonstrating the innervation of mammalian muscle in teased preparations. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 169, 73–74 P (1963).Google Scholar
  15. Barker, D., Ip, M.C.: Sprouting and degeneration of mammalian motor axons in normal and deafferented skeletal muscle. Proc. roy. Soc. B 163, 538–554 (1966).Google Scholar
  16. Barnard, E.A., Wieckowski, J., Chiu, T.H.: Cholinergic receptor molecules and cholinesterase molecules at mouse skeletal muscle junctions. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 234, 207–209 (1971).Google Scholar
  17. Betz, W., Sakmann, B.: Effects of proteolytic enzymes on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 230, 673–688 (1973).Google Scholar
  18. Bickerstaff, E.R., Woolf, A.L.: The intramuscular nerve endings in myasthenia gravis. Brain 83, 10–23 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Birks, R., Huxley, H.E., Katz, B.: The fine structure of the neuromuscular junction of the frog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 134–144 (1960).Google Scholar
  20. Birks, R., Katz, B., Miledi, R.: Physiological and structural changes at the amphibian myoneural junction in the course of nerve degeneration. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 145–168 (1960).Google Scholar
  21. Blaschko, H.K.F., Smith, A.D.: A discussion on subcellular and macromolecular aspects of synaptic transmission. Phil. Trans. B 261, 273–437 (1971).Google Scholar
  22. Bloom, F.E.: Localization of neurotransmitters by electron microscopy. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 50, 25–57 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. Boeke, J.: Nerve endings, motor and sensory. In: Penfield, W. (Ed.): Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System, Vol. I, pp. 243–315. New York: Hoeber 1932.Google Scholar
  24. Boroff, D.A., Dasgupta, B.R.: Botulinum toxin. In: Kadis, S., Montie, T.C., Ajl, S.J. (Eds.) Microbial Toxins, Vol. IIA, pp. 1–68. New York, Academic Press 1971.Google Scholar
  25. Bowden, R.E.M.: Some recent studies of skeletal muscle in anterior poliomyelitis and other neuromuscular disorders in man and the experimental animals. In Poliomyelitis, 2nd International Poliomyelitis Conference. Philadelphia: Lipincott 1951.Google Scholar
  26. Bowden, R.E.M.: Electromyography. In: Seddon, H.J. (Ed.): Peripheral Nerve Injuries, M.R.C. Special Report Series No. 282, pp. 263–297. London: H.M.S.O. 1954.Google Scholar
  27. Bowden, R.E.M., Gutmann, E.: Denervation and re-innervation of human voluntary muscle. Brain 67, 273–313 (1944).Google Scholar
  28. Bowden, R.E.M., Gutmann, E.: Observations in a case of muscular dystrophy with reference to diagnostic significance. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 56, 1–19 (1946).Google Scholar
  29. Bowden, R. E. M., Mahran, Z. Y.: The functional significance of the pattern of innervation of the muscle quadratus labii superioris of the rabbit, cat and rat. J. Anat. (Lond.) 90, 217–227 (1956).Google Scholar
  30. Boyd, I. A.: The structure and innervation of the nuclear bag muscle fibre system and the nuclear chain muscle fibre system in mammalian muscle spindles. Phil. Trans. B 245, 81–136 (1962).Google Scholar
  31. Bradley, W.G., Jenkison, M.: Abnormalities of peripheral nerves in murine muscular dystrophy. J. neurol. Sci. 18, 227–247 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brash, J.C.: Neurovascular hila of limb muscles. Edinburgh: Livingstone 1955.Google Scholar
  33. Brooks, V.B.: An intracellular study of the action of repetitive nerve volleys and of botulinum toxin on miniature end-plate potentials. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134, 264–277 (1956).Google Scholar
  34. Brooks, V.B., Curtis, D.R., Eccles, J.C.: The action of tetanus toxin on the inhibition of motoneurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 135, 655–672 (1957).Google Scholar
  35. Brown, L. M.: A Thiocholine method for locating cholinesterase activity by electron microscopy. Bibl. anat. (Basel) 2, 21–33 (1961).Google Scholar
  36. Brownell, B., Oppenheimer, D.R., Spalding, J.M.K.: Neurogenic muscle atrophy in myasthenia gravis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 311–322 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Buchtal, F.: The general concept of the motor unit. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 38, 3–30 (1960).Google Scholar
  38. Buller, A.J., Eccles, J.C., Eccles, R.M.: Interactions between motoneurones and muscles in respect of the characteristic speeds of their responses. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 417–439 (1960).Google Scholar
  39. Burgen, A.S.V., Dickens, F., Zatman, L. J.: The action of botulinum toxin on the neuro-muscular junction. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 109, 10–24 (1949).Google Scholar
  40. Burke, G.S.: The occurence of bacillus botulinus in nature. J. Bact. 4, 541–553 (1919a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Burke, G.S.: Notes on bacillus botulinus. J. Bact. 4, 555–565 (1919b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Burke, W., Ginsborg, B.L.: The electrical properties of the slow muscle fibre membrane. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 132, 586–598 (1956).Google Scholar
  43. Buzzard, E.F.: The clinical history and post-mortem examination of five cases of myasthenia gravis. Brain 28, 438–483 (1905).Google Scholar
  44. Carle, A., Rattone, G.: Studio sperimentale sull’eziologia del tetano. G. Accad. Med. Torino 32, 174–180 (1884).Google Scholar
  45. Ceccarelli, B., Hurlbut, W.P., Mauro, A.: Depletion of vesicles from frog neuromuscular junctions by prolonged tetanic stimulation. J. Cell Biol. 54, 30–38 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Changeux, J.-P., Kasai, M., Lee, C.-Y.: Use of a snake venom toxin to characterize the cholinergic receptor protein. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 67, 1241–1247 (1970).Google Scholar
  47. Clark, A.W., Hurlbut, W.P., Mauro, A.: Changes in the fine structure of the neuromuscular junction of the frog caused by black widow spider venom. J. Cell Biol. 52, 1–14 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Clark, A.W., Mauro, A., Longenecker, H.E., Hurlbut, W.P.: Effects of black widow spider venom on the frog neuromuscular junction. Nature (Lond.) 225, 703–705 (1970).Google Scholar
  49. Close, R.L.: Dynamic properties of mammalian skeletal muscles. Physiol. Rev. 52, 129–197 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Coërs, C.: Les variations structurelles normales et pathologiques de la jonction neuromusculaire. Acta neurol. belg. 55, 741–866 (1955).Google Scholar
  51. Coërs, C.: Structure and organization of the myoneural junction. Int. Rev. Cytol. 22, 239–267 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Coërs, C., Desmedt, J.E.: Mise en évidence d’une malformation caractéristique de la jonction neuromusculaire dans la myasthénie. Acta neurol. belg. 59, 539–561 (1959).Google Scholar
  53. Coërs, C., Reske-Nielsen, E., Harmsen, A.: The pattern of terminal motor innervation in healthy young adults. J. neurol. Sci. 19, 351–356 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Coërs, C., Woolf, A. L.: The innervation of muscle. Oxford: Blackwell 1959.Google Scholar
  55. Cohen, M. W.: The development of neuromuscular connexions in the presence of D-tubocurarine. Brain Res. 41, 457–463 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cooper, S., Daniel, P.M.: Muscle spindles in man: their morphology in the lumbricals and the deep muscles of the neck. Brain 86, 563–586 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Couteaux, R.: Contribution à l’étude de la synapse myoneurale. Rev. canad. Biol. 6, 563–711 (1947).Google Scholar
  58. Couteaux, R.: Morphological and cytochemical observations on the post-synaptic membrane at motor end-plates and ganglionic synapses. Exper. Cell Res., Suppl. 5, 294–322 (1958).Google Scholar
  59. Couteaux, R.: Motor end-plate structure. In: Bourne, G.H. (Ed.): Structure and Function of Muscle Vol. I, pp. 337–380. New York: Academic Press 1960.Google Scholar
  60. Couteaux, R.: The differentiation of synaptic areas. Proc. roy. Soc. B 158, 457–480 (1963).Google Scholar
  61. Couteaux, R., Pécot-Dechavassine, M.: Vésicules synaptiques et poche au niveau des “zones actives” de la jonction neuromusculaire. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 271, 2346–2349 (1970).Google Scholar
  62. Couteaux, R., Taxi, J.: Recherches histochimiques sur la distribution des activités cholinestérasiques au niveau de la synapse myoneurale. Arch. Anat. micr. Morph. exp. 41, 352–392 (1952).Google Scholar
  63. Csillik, B.: Functional structure of the post-synaptic membrane in the myoneural junction. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiado 1965.Google Scholar
  64. Csillik, B., Knyihar, E.: On the effect of motor nerve degeneration on the fine-structural localization of esterases in the mammalian motor end-plate. J. Cell Sci. 3, 529–538 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cuajunco, F.: Development of the human motor end plate. Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Instn. 30, 127–152 (1942).Google Scholar
  66. Cull-Candy, S.G., Neal, H., Usherwood, P.N.R.: Action of black widow spider venom on an aminergic synapse. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 241, 353–354 (1973).Google Scholar
  67. Curtis, D.R., Degroat, W.C.: Tetanus toxin and spinal inhibition. Brain Res. 10, 208–212 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Daniel, P.M., Strich, S.J.: Skeletal muscle. In: Wright, G.P. Symmers, W.S.T.C. (Eds.): Systemic Pathology, Vol. II, pp. 1331–1346. London: Longmans Green 1966.Google Scholar
  69. Davis, R., Koelle, G.B.: Electron microscopic localization of acetylcholinesterase and nonspecific cholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction by the gold-thiocholine and gold-thiolacetic acid methods. J. Cell. Biol. 34, 157–171 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Deharven, E., Coërs, C.: Electron microscopic study of the human neuromuscular junction. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 6, 7–10 (1959).Google Scholar
  71. Derobertis, E.: Submicroscopic morphology and function of the synapse. Exp. Cell Res., Suppl. 5, 347–369 (1958).Google Scholar
  72. Derobertis, E., Bennett, H.S.: Some features of the submicroscopic morphology of the synapses in frog and earthworm. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 1, 47–58 (1955).Google Scholar
  73. Delcastillo, J., Katz, B.: Quantal components of the end-plate potential. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 124, 560–573 (1954).Google Scholar
  74. Denz, F.A.: On the histochemistry of the myoneural junction. Brit. J. exp. Path. 34, 329–339 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Desmedt, J.E., Borenstein, S.: The myasthenic neuromuscular disorder. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 275–280. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  76. Diamond, J., Mellanby, J.: The effect of tetanus toxin in the goldfish. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 215, 727–741 (1971).Google Scholar
  77. Dickson, E.C.: Botulism: A clinical and experimental study. New York: Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research Monograph No. 8 (1918).Google Scholar
  78. Dickson, E.C., Shevky, R.: Botulism. Studies on the manner in which the toxin of Clostridium botulinum acts upon the body. I. The effect upon the autonomie nervous system. J. exp. Med. 37, 711–731 (1923a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Dickson, E.C., Shevky, E.: Botulism. Studies on the manner in which the toxin of Clostridium botulinum acts upon the body. II. The effect upon the voluntary nervous system. J. exp. Med. 38, 327–346 (1923b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Dogiel, A.S.: Methylenblautinktion der motorischen Nervenendigungen in den Muskeln der Amphibien und Reptilien. Arch. mikr. Anat. 35, 305–320 (1890).Google Scholar
  81. Doyère, L.: Mémoire sur les Tardigrades. Ann. Sci. Natur. Ser.2, Zoologie 14, 269–361 (1840).Google Scholar
  82. Drachman, D.B.: Atrophy of skeletal muscle in chick embryos treated with botulinum toxin. Science 145, 719–721 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Drachman, D.B.: Neurotrophic regulation of muscle cholinesterase: effects of botulinum toxin and denervation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 226, 619–627 (1972).Google Scholar
  84. Dubovsky, B.J., Meyer, K.F.: An experimental study of the methods available for the enrichment, demonstration and isolation of B. Botulinus in specimens of soil and its products, in suspected foods, in clinical and in necropsy material. J. infect. Dis. 31, 501–540 (1922a).Google Scholar
  85. Dubovsky, B.J., Meyer, K.F.: The distribution of the spores of B. Botulinus in the territory of Alaska and the Dominion of Canada. J. infect. Dis. 31, 595–599 (1922b).Google Scholar
  86. Dubowitz, V.: Developing and diseased muscle: a histochemical study. Spastics International Medical Publications Research Monograph No. 2. London: Heinemann 1968.Google Scholar
  87. Duchen, L.W.: Histological differences between soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the mouse after the local injection of botulinum toxin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 204, 17–18P (1969).Google Scholar
  88. Duchen, L. W.: Changes in motor innervation and cholinesterase localization induced by botulinum toxin in skeletal muscle of the mouse: differences between fast and slow muscles. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 33, 40–54 (1970a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Duchen, L.W.: Hereditary motor end-plate disease in the mouse: light and electron microscopic studies. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 33, 238–250 (1970b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Duchen, L.W.: The effects of botulinum toxin on the distribution of succinate dehydrogenase and phosphorylase in fast and slow skeletal muscles of the mouse. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 33, 580–585 (1970c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Duchen, L.W.: The effects in the mouse of nerve crush and regeneration on the innervation of skeletal muscles paralysed by Clostridium botulinum toxin. J. Path. 102, 9–14 (1970d).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Duchen, L.W.: An electron microscopic comparison of motor end-plates of slow and fast skeletal muscle fibres of the mouse. J. neurol. Sci. 14, 37–45 (1971a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Duchen, L.W.: An electron microscopic study of the changes induced by botulinum toxin in the motor end-plates of slow and fast skeletal muscle fibres of the mouse. J. neurol. Sci. 14, 47–60 (1971b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Duchen, L.W.: Changes in the electron microscopic structure of slow and fast muscle fibres of the mouse after the local injection of botulinum toxin. J. neurol. Sci. 14, 61–64 (1971c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Duchen, L.W.: Motor nerve growth induced by botulinum toxin as a regnerative phenomenon. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 65, 196–197 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Duchen, L.W.: The effects of tetanus toxin on the motor end-plates of the mouse: an electron microscopic study. J. neurol. Sci. 19, 153–167 (1973a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Duchen, L. W.: The local effects of tetanus toxin on the electron microscopic structure of skeletal muscle fibres of the mouse. J. neurol. Sci. 19, 169–177 (1973b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Duchen, L.W., Excell, B.J., Patel, R., Smith, B.: Changes in motor end-plates resulting from muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration: a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of the depolarizing fraction (cardiotoxin) of Dendroaspis jamesoni venom. J. neurol. Sci. 21, 391–417 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Duchen, L.W., Searle, A.G., Strich, S.J.: An hereditary motor end-plate disease in the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 189, 4–6 P (1967).Google Scholar
  100. Duchen, L.W., Stefani, E.: Electrophysiological studies of neuromuscular transmission in hereditary “motor end-plate disease” in the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 535–548 (1971).Google Scholar
  101. Duchen, L.W., Strich, S. J.: Changes in the pattern of motor innervation of skeletal muscle in the mouse after local injections of Clostridium botulinum toxin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 189, 2–4P (1967).Google Scholar
  102. Duchen, L.W., Strich, S.J.: An hereditary motor neurone disease with progressive denervation of muscle in the mouse. The mutant “wobbler”. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 31, 535–542 (1968a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Duchen, L.W., Strich, S.J.: The effects of botulinum toxin on the pattern of innervation of skeletal muscle in the mouse. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 53, 84–89 (1968b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Duchen, L. W., Tonge, D. A.: The effects of tetanus toxin on neuromuscular transmission and on the morphology of motor end-plates in slow and fast skeletal muscle of the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 228, 157–172 (1973).Google Scholar
  105. Eaton, L.M., Lambert, E.H.: Electromyography and electric stimulation of nerves in diseases of motor unit: observations on myasthenic syndrome associated with malignant tumours. J. Amer. med. Ass. 163, 1117–1124 (1957).Google Scholar
  106. Edds, M.V.: Collateral regeneration of residual motor axons in partially denervated muscles. J. exp. Zool. 113, 517–552 (1950).Google Scholar
  107. Edds, M. V., Small, W.T.: The behaviour of residual axons in partially denervated muscles of the monkey. J. exp. Med. 93, 207–216 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Edström, L., Kugelberg, E.: Histochemical composition, distribution of fibres and fatiguability of single motor units. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 31, 424–433 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Elias, E.R.: Histological and histochemical studies of red and white mammalian muscles, anterior horn cells and related bouton terminaux following denervation and reinnervation Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1972.Google Scholar
  110. Engel, A.G., Lambert, E.H., Santa, T.: Study of long-term anticholinesterase therapy. Neurology (Minneap.) 23, 1273–1281 (1973).Google Scholar
  111. Engel, A.G., Santa, T.: Histometric analysis of the ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junction in myasthenia gravis and in the myasthenic syndrome. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 183, 46–63 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Engel, A.G., Santa, T.: Motor endplate fine structure. In: Desmedt, J.E. (Ed.): New Developments in Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 1, pp. 196–228. Basel: Karger 1973.Google Scholar
  113. Engel, A.G., Tsujihata, M., Lindstrom, J., Lennon, V.A.: End-plate fine structure in myasthenia gravis and in the experimental auto-immune myasthenia. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (in the press).Google Scholar
  114. Engel, W.K.: Cytological localization of cholinesterase in cultured skeletal muscle cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 9, 66–72 (1961).Google Scholar
  115. Excell, B.J., Patel, R.: Characterization of toxic fractions from Dendroaspis jamesoni venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225, 29–30 P (1972).Google Scholar
  116. Fambrough, D.M., Hartzell, H.C.: Acetylcholine receptors: number and distribution at neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm. Science 176, 189–191 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Fardeau, M.: Ultrastructure des jonctions neuro-musculaires dans la musculature squelettique du cobaye. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 29–50. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  118. Fardeau, M., Engel, W.K.: Relation entre la morphologie des plaques motrices et le type des fibres musculaires squelletiques (chez le cobaye). In: VIth International Congress of Neuropathology Proceedings 740. Paris: Masson 1970.Google Scholar
  119. Fardeau, M., Godet-Guillain, J., Chevallay, M.: Modifications ultrastructurales des plaques motrices dans la myasthenie et les syndromes myastheniques. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 247–256. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  120. Feindel, W., Hinshaw, J.R., Weddell, G.: The pattern of motor innervation in mammalian striated muscle. J. Anat. (Lond.) 86, 35–48 (1952).Google Scholar
  121. Fenichel, G.M., Shy, G.M.: Muscle biopsy experience in myasthenia gravis. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 9, 237–243 (1963).Google Scholar
  122. Fex, S., Sonesson, B., Thesleff, S., Zelena, J.: Nerve implants in botulinum poisoned mammalian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 184, 872–882 (1966).Google Scholar
  123. Fex, S., Thesleff, S.: The time required for innervation of denervated muscles by nerve implants. Life Sci. 6, 635–639 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Friedenberg, R.M., Seligman, A.M.: Acetylcholinesterase at the myoneural junction: cytochemical ultrastructure and some biochemical considerations. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 20, 771–792 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Frohse, F., Fränkel, M.: Die Muskeln des menschlichen Armes. Jena: G. Fischer 1908.Google Scholar
  126. Frontali, N.: Catecholamine-depleting effect of black widow spider venom on iris nerve fibres. Brain Res. 37, 146–148 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Fukuhara, N., Takamori, M., Gutmann, L., Chou, S.-M.: Eaton-Lambert syndrome. Ultrastructural study of the motor end-plates. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 27, 67–78 (1972).Google Scholar
  128. Gauthier, G.F.: On the relationship of ultrastructural and cytochemical features to color in mammalian skeletal muscle. Z. Zeilforsch. 95, 462–482 (1969).Google Scholar
  129. Gauthier, G.F., Padykula, H.A.: Cytological studies of fiber types in skeletal muscle. J. Cell. Biol. 28, 333–354 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Gilbert, J.J., Steinberg, M.C., Banker, B.Q.: Ultrastructural alterations of the motor end plate in myotonic dystrophy of the mouse (dy2J/dy2J). J. Neuropath, exp. Neurol. 32, 345–364 (1973).Google Scholar
  131. Ginsborg, B.L.: Some properties of avian skeletal muscle fibres with multiple neuromuscular junctions. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 154, 581–598 (1960).Google Scholar
  132. Gordon, G., Holbourn, A.H.S.: The mechanical activity of single motor units in reflex contractions of skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 110, 26–35 (1949).Google Scholar
  133. Gray, E.G., Guillery, R.W.: Synaptic morphology in the normal and degenerating nervous system. Int. Rev. Cytol. 19, 111–182 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Green, D.P.L., Miledi, R., Vincent, A.: Neuromuscular transmission after immunization against acetylcholine receptors. Proc. roy. Soc. B 189, 57–68 (1975).Google Scholar
  135. Green, E.L.: Biology of the laboratory mouse. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 1966.Google Scholar
  136. Gruber, D., Eckert, K.: Die motorischen Endplatten in der Schlundmuskulatur von Katze und Hund, dargestellt mit dem Osmiumsäure-Zinkjodid-Verfahren nach Maillet. Anat. Anz. 131, 406–413 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Guth, L.: “Trophic” influences of nerve on muscle. Physiol. Rev. 48, 645–687 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Gutmann, E., Young, J.Z.: The reinnervation of muscle after varying periods of atrophy. J. Anat. (Lond.) 78, 15–43 (1944).Google Scholar
  139. Guyton, A.C., Macdonald, M.A.: Physiology of botulinus toxin. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 57, 578–592 (1947).Google Scholar
  140. Gwyn, D.G., Aitken, J.T.: The formation of new endplates in mammalian skeletal muscle. J. Anat. (Lond.) 100, 116–126 (1966).Google Scholar
  141. Hall, Z.W.: Multiple forms of acetylcholinesterase and their distribution in endplate and non-endplate regions of rat diaphragm muscle. J. Neurobiology 4, 343–361 (1973).Google Scholar
  142. Hall, Z.W., Kelly, R.B.: Enzymatic detachment of endplate acetylcholinesterase from muscle. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 237, 62 (1971).Google Scholar
  143. Harriman, D.G. F., Taverner, D., Woolf, A.L.: Ekbom’s syndrome and burning paraesthesiae: a biopsy study by vital staining and electron microscopy of the intramuscular innervation with a note on age changes in motor nerve endings in distal muscles. Brain 93, 393–406 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Harris, C.: The morphology of the myoneural junction as influenced by neurotoxic drugs. Amer. J. Path. 30, 501–519 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Harris, J.B., Ward, M.R.: A comparative study of “denervation” in muscles from mice with inherited progressive neuromuscular disorders. Exp. Neurol. 42, 169–180 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hartzell, H.C., Fambrough, D.M.: Acetylcholine receptors. Distribution and extrajunctional density in rat diaphragm after denervation correlated with acetylcholine sensitivity. J. gen. Physiol. 60, 248–262 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Heilbronn, E., Mattsson, C.: The nicotinic cholinergic receptor protein: Improved purification method, preliminary amino acid composition and observed auto-immune response. J. Neurochem. 22, 315–317 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Heilbronn, E., Mattsson, C., Stalberg, E., Hilton-Brown, P.: Neurophysiological signs of myasthenia in rabbits after receptor antibody development. J. neurol. Sci. 24, 59–64 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Hess, A.: The structure of slow and fast extrafusal muscle fibers in the extraocular muscles and their nerve endings in guinea pigs. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 58, 63–79 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Hess, A.: The sarcoplasmic reticulum, the T system, and the motor terminals of slow and twitch muscle fibers in the garter snake. J. Cell Biol. 26, 467–476 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Hess, A.: The structure of vertebrate slow and twitch muscle fibers. Invest. Ophthal. 6, 217–228 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Hess, A.: Vertebrate slow muscle fibers. Physiol. Rev. 50, 40–62 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Heuser, J.E.: A possible origin of the “giant” spontaneous potentials that occur after prolonged transmitter release at frog neuromuscular junctions. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 239, 106–108P (1974).Google Scholar
  154. Heuser, J.E., Katz, B., Miledi, R.: Structural and functional changes of frog neuromuscular junctions in high calcium solutions. Proc. roy. Soc. B 178, 407–415 (1971).Google Scholar
  155. Heuser, J.E., Miledi, R.: Effect of lanthanum ions on function and structure of frog neuromuscular junctions. Proc. roy. Soc. B 179, 247–260 (1971).Google Scholar
  156. Heuser, J. E., Reese, T. S.: Evidence for recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane during transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. Cell. Biol. 57, 315–344 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Heuser, J.E., Reese, T.S., Landis, D.M.D.: Functional changes in frog neuromuscular junctions studied with freeze-fracture. J. Neurocytol. 3, 109–131 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Hewer, E.E.: The development of nerve endings in the human foetus. J. Anat. (Lond.) 69, 369–379 (1935).Google Scholar
  159. Hewlett, R.T.: Bacillus botulinus. In: A system of Bacteriology in Relation to Medicine (Medical Research Council), Vol. 3, p. 373. London: H.M.S.O. 1929.Google Scholar
  160. Hilton, S. M., Lewis, G. P.: The cause of the vasodilatation accompanying activity in the submandibular salivary gland. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 128, 235–248 (1955).Google Scholar
  161. Hines, M.: Studies on the innervation of skeletal muscle. III. Innervation of the extrinsic eye muscles of the rabbit. Amer. J. Anat. 47, 1–54 (1931).Google Scholar
  162. Hinsey, J.C.: The innervation of muscle. Physiol. Rev. 14, 514–585 (1934).Google Scholar
  163. Hoffman, H.: Local re-innervation in partially denervated muscle: a histophysiological study. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 28, 383–397 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Holman, M.E., Spitzer, N.C.: Action of botulinum on transmission from sympathetic nerves to the vas deferens. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 47, 431–433 (1973).Google Scholar
  165. Hubbard, J.I.: Microphysiology of vertebrate neuromuscular transmission. Physiol. Rev. 53, 674–723 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Hubbard, J. L., Kwanbunbumpen, S.: Evidence for the vesicle hypothesis. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 194, 407–420 (1968).Google Scholar
  167. Israel, M., Gautron, J., Lesbats, B.: Fractionnement de l’organe electrique de le Torpille. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 61–69. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  168. James, D.W., Tresman, R.L.: An electron-microscopic study of the de novo formation of neuromuscular junctions in tissue culture. Z. Zellforsch. 100, 126–140 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Jerusalem, F., Engel, A. G., Gomez, M.R.: Duchenne dystrophy II. Morphometric study of motor end-plate fine structure. Brain 97, 123–130 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Jirmanova, L., Sobotkova, M., Thesleff, S., Zelena, J.: Atrophy in skeletal muscles poisoned with botulinum toxin. Physiol. bohemslov. 13, 467–472 (1964).Google Scholar
  171. Jones, S. F., Kwanbunbumpen, S.: The effects of nerve stimulation and hemicholinium on synaptic vesicles at the neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 31–50 (1970a).Google Scholar
  172. Jones, S. F., Kwanbunbumpen, S.: Some effects of nerve stimulation and hemicholinium on quantal transmitter release at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 51–61 (1970b).Google Scholar
  173. Josefsson, J.-O., Thesleff, S.: Electromyographic findings in experimental botulinum intoxication. Acta physiol. scand. 51, 163–168 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Kadanoff, D.: Die Sensiblen Nervenendigungen in der Mimischen Muskulatur des Menschen. Z. mikr.-anat. Forsch. 62, 1–15 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Kaeser, H.E., Müller, H.R., Friedrich, B.: The nature of tetraplegia in infectious tetanus. Europ. Neurology 1, 17–27 (1968).Google Scholar
  176. Kaeser, H.E., Saner, A.A.: The effect of tetanus toxin on neuromuscular transmission. Europ. Neurology 3, 194–205 (1970).Google Scholar
  177. Karlsson, E., Heilbronn, E., Widlund, L.: Isolation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by biospecific chromatography on insolubilized Naja naja neurotoxin. FEBS Letters 28, 107–111 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Kasa, P., Mann, S.P., Hebb, C.: Localization of choline acetyltransferase. Nature (Lond.) 226, 812–814 (1970).Google Scholar
  179. Katz, B., Kuffler, S.W.: Multiple motor innervation of the frog’s sartorius muscle. J. Neurophysiol. 4, 209–223 (1941).Google Scholar
  180. Katz, B., Miledi, R.: Spontaneous and evoked activity of motor nerve endings in calcium Ringer. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 689–706 (1969).Google Scholar
  181. Keene., Lucas M.F.: Muscle spindles in human laryngeal muscles. J. Anat. (Lond.) 95, 25–29 (1961).Google Scholar
  182. Kefalides, N. A.: Structure and biosynthesis of basement membranes. Intern. Rev. of Connective Tissue Res. 6, 63–104 (1973).Google Scholar
  183. Kelly, A.M., Zacks, S.L.: The fine structure of motor endplate morphogenesis. J. Cell Biol. 42, 154–169 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Kitasato, S.: Über den Tetanusbacillus. Z. Hyg. Infekt.-Kr. 7, 225–233 (1889).Google Scholar
  185. Koelle, G.B., Friedenwald, J.S.: A histochemical method for localizing cholinesterase activity. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 70, 617–622 (1949).Google Scholar
  186. Koenig, J.: Innervation motrice expérimentale d’une portion de muscle strié normalement dépourvue de plaques motrice chez le rat. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 256, 2918–2920 (1963).Google Scholar
  187. Koenig, J.: Contribution a l’étude de la morphologie des plaques motrices des grands dorsaux anterieur et posterieur du poulet après innervation croisée. Arch. Anat. micr. Morph. exp. 59, 403–425 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Koenig, J.: Contribution a l’étude de la néoformation expérimentale des plaques motrices de rat. Arch. Anat. micr. Morph. exp. 60, 1–26 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Koenig, J.: Morphogenesis of motor end-plates “in vivo” and “in vitro”. Brain Res. 62, 361–365 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Koenig, J., Pécot-Dechavassine, M.: Relations entre l’apparition des potentiels miniatures spontanes et l’ultrastructure des plaques motrices en voie de réinnervation et de néoformation chez le rat. Brain Res. 27, 43–57 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Korneliussen, H.: Ultrastructure of normal and stimulated motor endplates. Z. Zellforsch. 130, 28–57 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Korneliussen, H.: Ultrastructure of motor nerve terminals on different types of muscle fibers in the Atlantic Hagfish (Myxine glutinosa). Z. Zeilforsch. 147, 87–105 (1973).Google Scholar
  193. Korneliussen, H., Waerhaug, O.: Three morphological types of motor nerve terminals in the rat diaphragm, and their possible innervation of different muscle fiber types. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 140, 73–84 (1973).Google Scholar
  194. Krause, W.: Über die Endigung der Muskelnerven. Z. f. rationelle Med. 18, 136–160 (1863).Google Scholar
  195. Kühne, W.: Neue Untersuchungen über die motorische Nervendigungen. Z. Biol. 23, 1–148 (1887).Google Scholar
  196. Kuffler, S.W., Vaughan Williams, E.M.: Small-nerve junctional potentials. The distribution of small motor nerves to frog skeletal muscle, and the membrane characteristics of the fibres they innervate. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 121, 289–317 (1953a).Google Scholar
  197. Kuffler, S. W., Vaughan Williams, E. M.: Properties of the “slow” skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 121, 318–340 (1953b).Google Scholar
  198. Kugelberg, E., Edström, L.: Differential histochemical effects of muscle contractions on phosphorylase and glycogen in various types of fibres: relation to fatigue. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 31, 415–423 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Kupfer, C.: Selective block of synaptic transmission in ciliary ganglion by type A botulinus toxin in rabbits. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 99, 474–476 (1958).Google Scholar
  200. Kupfer, C.: Motor innervation of extraocular muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 153, 522–526 (1960).Google Scholar
  201. Lamanna, C.: The most poisonous poison. Science 130, 763–772 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Lambert, E.H., Elmqvist, D.: Quantal components of end-plate potentials in the myasthenic syndrome. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 183, 183–199 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Lee, C.Y.: Chemistry and pharmacology of polypeptide toxins in snake venoms. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 12, 265–286 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Lehmann, H., Silk, E., Liddell, J.: Pseudo-cholinesterase. Brit. med. Bull. 17, 230–233 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Leighton, G.: Botulism and food preservation. The Loch Maree tragedy. London: Collins 1923.Google Scholar
  206. Lentz, T.L.: Development of the neuromuscular junction. I. Cytological and cytochemical studies on the neuromuscular junction of differentiating muscle in the regenerating limb of the newt Triturus. J. Cell Biol. 42, 431–443 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Lewis, P.R.: A simultaneous coupling azo dye technique suitable for whole mounts. Quart. J. micr. Sci. 99, 67–72 (1958).Google Scholar
  208. Lewis, P.R.: The effect of varying the conditions in the Koelle technique. Bibl. anat. (Basel) 2, 11–20 (1961).Google Scholar
  209. Liddell, E.G.T., Sherrington, C.S.: Recruitment and some other features of reflex inhibition. Proc. roy. Soc. B 97, 488–518 (1925).Google Scholar
  210. Longenecker, H.E., Hurlbut, W.P., Mauro, A., Clark, A.W.: Effects of black widow spider venom on the frog neuromuscular junction. Nature (Lond.) 225, 701–703 (1970).Google Scholar
  211. Lucas, K.: The excitable substances of amphibian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 36, 113–135 (1907).Google Scholar
  212. Lüttgau, H.C.: The action of calcium ions on potassium contractures of single muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 168, 679–697 (1963).Google Scholar
  213. Macdermot, V.: The changes in the motor endplate in myasthenia gravis. Brain 83, 24–36 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Maillet, M.: Modifications de la technique Champy au tètraoxyde d’osmium-iodure de potassium. Résultats de son application a l’etude des fibres nerveuses. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 6, 939–940 (1959).Google Scholar
  215. Manolov, S., Penev, D., Itchev, K.: Innervation multiple des fibres musculaires extrafusales du muscle vocal du chat. Comptes. Rend. Acad. Bulgare Sci. 16, 849–852 (1963).Google Scholar
  216. Marnay, A., Nachmansohn, D.: Choline esterase in voluntary muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 92, 37–47 (1938).Google Scholar
  217. Massoulie, J., Rieger, F., Bon, S., Powell, J.: Les différentes formes moleculaires de l’acétylcholinesterase. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 143–144. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  218. Mavrinskaia, L.F.: On the relationship between the development of the nerve endings of the skeletal muscles and the appearance of movement activity in the human foetus. Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol. 38, 61–68 (1960).Google Scholar
  219. McComas, A. J., Sica, R.E.P., Campbell, M. J.: “Sick” motoneurones. A unifying concept of muscle disease. Lancet 1971, I, 321–325.Google Scholar
  220. Mellanby, J., Thompson, P.A.: The effect of tetanus toxin at the neuromuscular junction in the goldfish. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 224, 407–419 (1972).Google Scholar
  221. Meyer, K. F., Dubovsky, B.J.: The distribution of the spores of B. botulinus in California. J. infect. Dis. 31, 541–555 (1922a).Google Scholar
  222. Meyer, K. F., Dubovsky, B. J.: The distribution of the spores of B. Botulinus in the United States. J. infect. Dis. 31, 559–594 (1922b).Google Scholar
  223. Michelson, A.M., Russell, E. S., Harman, P.J.: Dystrophia muscularis: a hereditary primary myopathy in the house mouse. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 41, 1079–1084 (1955).Google Scholar
  224. Miledi, R.: Junctional and extra-junctional acetylcholine receptors in skeletal muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 151, 24–30 (1960).Google Scholar
  225. Miledi, R.: Induced innervation of end-plate free muscle segments. Nature (Lond.) 193, 281–282 (1962).Google Scholar
  226. Miledi, R., Potter, L.T.: Acetylcholine receptors in muscle fibres. Nature (Lond.) 233, 599–603 (1971).Google Scholar
  227. Miledi, R., Slater, C.R.: Electrophysiology and electron-microscopy of rat neuromuscular junctions after nerve degeneration. Proc. roy. Soc. B 169, 289–306 (1968).Google Scholar
  228. Mott, F. W.: The degeneration of the neurone. London: John Bale, Sons and Danielsson 1900.Google Scholar
  229. Müller: Das Wursgift. Dtsch. Klin. 21, 321 et seq; 22, 27 et seq; (26 sections) (1869).Google Scholar
  230. Muir, A.R.: Observations on the attachment of myofibrils to the sarcolemma at the muscle-tendon junction. In: Histochemistry of Cholinesterase, p. 182. Basel: Karger 1961.Google Scholar
  231. Mumenthaler, M., Engel, W.K.: Cytological localization of cholinesterase in developing chick embryo skeletal muscle. Acta anat. (Basel) 47, 274–299 (1961).Google Scholar
  232. Murata, F., Ogata, T.: The ultrastructure of neuromuscular junctions of human red, white and intermediate striated muscle fibers. Tohoku J. exp. Med. 99, 289–301 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Nakajima, Y.: Fine structure of red and white muscle fibers and their neuromuscular junctions in the snake fish (Ophiocephalus argus). Tissue and Cell 1, 229–246 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Namba, T., Nakamura, T., Grob, D.: Staining for nerve fiber and cholinesterase activity in fresh frozen sections. Amer. J. clin. Path. 47, 74–77 (1967).Google Scholar
  235. Nassar, A.M.: Structural changes of fast and slow mammalian muscle after tenotomy, denervation and reinnervation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1967.Google Scholar
  236. Nicolaier, A.: Über infectiosen tetanus. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 10, 842–844 (1884).Google Scholar
  237. Nyström, B.: Histochemical studies of end-plate bound esterases in “slow-red” and “fast-white” cat muscles during post-natal development. Acta neurol. scand. 44, 295–318 (1968a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Nyström, B.: Postnatal development of motor nerve terminals in “slow-red” and “fast-white” cat muscles. Acta neurol. scand. 44, 363–383 (1968b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Okamoto, M., Longenecker, H.E., Riker, W.F., Song, S.K.: Destruction of mammalian motor nerve terminals by black widow spider venom. Science 172, 733–736 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Oosterhuis, H., Bethlem, J.: Neurogenic muscle involvement in myasthenia gravis: a clinical and histopathological study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 36, 244–254 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Orkand, P.M.: Light and electron microscopic studies of skeletal and cardiac muscle in the normal state and in drug-induced myopathies in the cat. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1964.Google Scholar
  242. Okrand, R.K.: A further study of electrical responses in slow and twitch muscle fibres of the frog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 167, 181–191 (1963).Google Scholar
  243. Ovalle, W.K.: Motor nerve terminals on rat intrafusal muscle fibres, a correlated light and electron microscopic study. J. Anat. (Lond.) 46, 239–252 (1972).Google Scholar
  244. Padykula, H.A., Gauthier, G.F.: The ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junction of mammalian red, white and intermediate skeletal muscle fibers. J. Cell Biol. 46, 27–41 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Page, S.G.: A comparison of the fine structures of frog slow and twitch muscle fibres. J. Cell Biol. 26, 477–497 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Palade, G.E.: Electron microscope observations of interneuronal and neuromuscular synapses. Anat. Rec. 118, 335–336 (1954).Google Scholar
  247. Palay, S.L.: Synapses in the central nervous system. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. Suppl. 2, 193–202 (1956).Google Scholar
  248. Palmgren, A.: A rapid method for selective silver staining of nerve fibres and nerve endings in mounted paraffin sections. Acta zoologica Stockholm 29, 377–392 (1948).Google Scholar
  249. Pappas, G. D., Peterson, E. R., M Asurovsky, E. B., Crain, S. M.: Electron microscopy of the in vitro development of mammalian motor end-plates. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 183, 33–45 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Patrick, J., Lindstrom, J.: Autoimmune response to acetylcholine receptor. Science 180, 871–872 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Peachey, L.D., Huxley, A. F.: Structural identification of twitch and slow striated muscle fibres of the frog. J. Cell Biol. 13, 177–180 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Pearse, A.G.E.: Carboxylic esterases. In: Histochemistry. Theoretical and Applied, 2nd Ed., pp. 456–490. London: Churchill 1960.Google Scholar
  253. Pécot-Dechavassine, M., Couteaux, R.: Potentiels miniatures d’amplitude anormale obtenus dans des conditions experimentales et changements concomitants des structures presynaptiques. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 177–185. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  254. Peterson, E.R., Crain, S.M.: Innervation in cultures of fetal rodent skeletal muscle by organotypic explants of spinal cord from different animals. Z. Zellforsch. 106, 1–21 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Pilar, G., Hess, A.: Differences in internal structure and nerve terminals of the slow and twitch muscle fibres in the cat superior oblique. Anat. Rec. 154, 243–251 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Raberger, E.: Innervationsunterschiede zwischen roten und weißen Muskelfasern der Ratte. Verh. anat. Ges. (Jena) 66, 431–434 (1971).Google Scholar
  257. Ragab, A.H.M.F.: Motor end-plate changes in mouse muscular dystrophy. Lancet 1971 II, 815–816.Google Scholar
  258. Rand, M.J., Whaler, B.C.: Impairment of sympathetic transmission by botulinum toxin. Nature (Lond.) 206, 588–591 (1965).Google Scholar
  259. Ranvier, L.: Proprietes et structures differentes des muscles rouge et des muscles blancs, chez les lapins et chez les raies. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 77, 1030–1034 (1873).Google Scholar
  260. Redfern, P.A.: Neuromuscular transmission in new-born rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 209, 701–709 (1970).Google Scholar
  261. Reger, J.F.: Electron microscopy of the motor end plate in intercostal muscle of the rat. Anat. Rec. 118, 344 (1954).Google Scholar
  262. Reger, J. F.: The fine structure of neuromuscular synapses of gastrocnemii from mouse and frog. Anat. Rec. 130, 7–24 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Reger, J.F.: Studies in the fine structure of normal and denervated neuromuscular junctions from mouse gastrocnemii. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 2, 269–282 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Robertson, J.D.: Electron microscope observations on a reptilian myoneural junction. Anat. Rec. 118, 346 (1954).Google Scholar
  265. Robertson, J.D.: Electron microscopy of the motor end-plate and the neuromuscular spindle. Amer. J. phys. Med. 39, 1–43 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Rouget, M.: Note sur la terminaison des nerfs moteurs dans les muscles chez les reptiles, les oiseaux et les mammifères. J. de la physiol. de l’homme, Par., 5, 574–593 (1862).Google Scholar
  267. Russell, D. S.: Histological changes in the striped muscles in myasthenia gravis. J. Path. Bact. 65, 279–289 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Salafsky, B., Stirling, C.A.: Altered neural protein in murine muscular dystrophy. Nature. (Lond.) New Biol. 246, 126–128 (1973).Google Scholar
  269. Salpeter, M.M.: Electron microscope radioautography as a quantitative tool in enzyme cytochemistry. I. The distribution of acetylcholinesterase at motor end plates of a vertebrate twitch muscle. J. Cell Biol. 32, 379–389 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Salpeter, M.M., Plattner, H., Rogers, A.: Quantitative assay of esterases in end plates of mouse diaphragm by electron microscope autoradiography. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 20, 1059–1068 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Santa, T., Engel, A.G.: Histometric analysis of neuromuscular junction ultrastructure in rat red, white and intermediate muscle fibres. In: Desmedt, J.E. (Ed.): New Developments in Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol.1, pp. 41–54. Basel: Karger 1973.Google Scholar
  272. Schofield, G.C.: Experimental studies on the innervation of the mucous membrane of the gut. Brain 83, 490–514 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Searle, A. G.: Mouse News Letter 27, 34 (1962).Google Scholar
  274. Shehata, S. H.: The innervation of avian muscle. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1961.Google Scholar
  275. Shehata, S.H., Bowden, R.E.M.: The innervation of avian striated muscle. J. Anat. (Lond.) 94, 574–575 (1960).Google Scholar
  276. Shehata, S.H., Bowden, R.E.M.: Further observations on the innervation of avian muscles. J. Anat.(Lond.) 95, 601 (1961).Google Scholar
  277. Sherrington, C.S.: Some functional problems attaching to convergence. Proc. roy. Soc. B 105, 332–362 (1930).Google Scholar
  278. Sidman, R.L., Green, M.C., Appel, S.H.: Catalog of the neurological mutants of the mouse. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press 1965.Google Scholar
  279. Simpson, J.A.: Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes. In: Walton, J.N. (Ed.): Disorders of Voluntary Muscle, 2nd Ed, pp. 541–578. London: Churchill 1969.Google Scholar
  280. Snell, R.S., McIntyre, N.: Changes in the histochemical appearances of cholinesterase at the motor end-plate following denervation. Brit. J. exp. Path. 37, 44–48 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Sotelo, C.: Morphologie des synapses centrales. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 5–27. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  282. Stein, J.M., Padykula, H.A.: Histochemical classification of individual skeletal muscle fibers of the rat. Amer. J. Anat. 110, 103–123 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Steinbach, J.H., Harris, A.J., Patrick, J., Schubert, D., Heinemann, S.: Nerve-muscle interaction in vitro. Role of acetylcholine. J. gen. Physiol. 62, 255–270 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Sugiyama, H., Benda, P., Meunier, J.-C., Changeux, J.-P.: Immunological characterisation of the cholinergic receptor protein from Electrophorus electricus, FEBS Letters 35, 124–128 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Tello, F.: Degeneration et régéneration des plaques motrices après la section des nerfs. Trab. Inst. Cajal Invest, biol. 5, 117–149 (1907).Google Scholar
  286. Tello, F.: Genesis de las terminaciones nerviosas motrices y sensitivas. Trab. Inst. Cajal Invest, biol. 15, 101–199 (1917).Google Scholar
  287. Teräväinen, H.: Development of the myoneural junction in the rat. Z. Zellforsch. 87, 249–265 (1968a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Teräväinen, H.: Electron microscopic and histochemical observations on different types of nerve endings in the extraocular muscles of the rat. Z. Zellforsch. 90, 372–388 (1968b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Teräväinen, H.: Carboxylic esterases in developing myoneural junctions of rat striated muscles. Histochemie 12, 307–315 (1968c).Google Scholar
  290. Teräväinen, H.: Localization of acetylcholinesterase in the rat myoneural junction. Histochemie 17, 162–169 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Teräväinen, H.: Effect of unilateral electrocoagulation of the oculomotor nucleus on the ultrastructure of small multiple myoneural junctions present in the extraocular muscles. Acta neurol. scand. 48, 321–329 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Thesleff, S.: Supersensitivity of skeletal muscle produced by botulinum toxin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 151, 598–607 (1960a).Google Scholar
  293. Thesleff, S.: Effects of motor innervation on the chemical sensitivity of skeletal muscle. Physiol. Rev. 40, 734–752 (1960b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Tiegs, O. W.: Innervation of voluntary muscle. Physiol. Rev. 33, 90–144 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Tizzoni, G., Cattani, G.: Über das Tetanusgift. Zbl. Bakt. 8, 69–73 (1890).Google Scholar
  296. Toh, H.T.: Biochemical, structural and functional changes in isolated heart and skeletal muscle preparations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1971.Google Scholar
  297. Tonge, D.A.: Reinnervation of skeletal muscle in the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 236, 22–23P (1974a).Google Scholar
  298. Tonge, D.A.: Synaptic function in experimental dually innervated muscle in the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 239, 96–97P (1974b).Google Scholar
  299. Tonge, D.A.: Chronic effects of botulinum toxin on neuromuscular transmission and sensitivity to acetylcholine in slow and fast skeletal muscle of the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 241, 127–139 (1974c).Google Scholar
  300. Tonge, D.A.: Physiological characteristics of reinnervation of skeletal muscle in the mouse. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 241, 141–153 (1974d).Google Scholar
  301. Tower, S.S.: Further study of the sympathetic innervation to skeletal muscle: anatomical considerations. J. comp. Neurol. 53, 177–203 (1931).Google Scholar
  302. Tsuji, S. Rieger, F. Peltre, G.: La localisation immunologique de l’acetylcholinesterase. In: La Transmission Cholinergique del’excitation, pp. 129–130. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  303. Tuffery, A.R.: Growth and degeneration of motor end-plates in normal cat hind limb muscles. J. Anat. (Lond.) 110, 221–247 (1971).Google Scholar
  304. Valdivia, O.: Methods of fixation and the morphology of synaptic vesicles. J. comp. Neurol. 142, 257–274 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Van Ermengem, E.: Recherches sur des empoisonnements produit a Ellezelles (Hainaut) par du jambon et sur les causes du botulisme, de l’ichthyosisme, et en general. Arch. Pharmacodyn. 2, 355–357 (1896).Google Scholar
  306. Van Ermengem, E.: Contribution à l’étude des intoxications alimentaires. Recherches sur des accidents a caractères botuliniques par du jambon. Arch. de Pharmacodyn. 3, 213–350 (1897).Google Scholar
  307. Van Harreveld, A.: Reinnervation of denervated muscle fibers by adjacent functioning motor units. Amer. J. Physiol. 144, 477–493 (1945).Google Scholar
  308. Van Heyningen, W.E., Mellanby, J.: Tetanus toxin. In: Kadis, S., Montie, T.C., Ajl, S.J. (Eds.): Microbial Toxins, Vol.II A, pp. 69–108. New York: Academic Press 1971.Google Scholar
  309. Veneroni, G., Murray, M.R.: Formation de novo and development of neuromuscular junctions in vitro. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 21, 369–382 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Waser, P.G.: Autoradiographic investigations of curarizing and depolarizing drugs in the motor endplate. In: Roth, L.J. (Ed.): Isotopes in Experimental Pharmacology, pp. 99–115. Chicago: Chicago University Press 1965.Google Scholar
  311. Waser, P.G., Nickel, E.: Electronmicroscopic and autoradiographic studies of normal and denervated endplates. In: Akert, K., Waser, P.G. (Eds.): Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission, pp. 157–169. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1969.Google Scholar
  312. Weddell, G., Feinstein, B., Pattle, R.E.: The clinical application of electromyography. Lancet 1943 I, 236–239.Google Scholar
  313. Weddell, G., Feinstein, B., Pattle, R.E.: The electrical activity of voluntary muscle in man under normal and pathological conditions. Brain 67, 178–257 (1944).Google Scholar
  314. Weddell, G., Zander, E.: A critical evaluation of methods used to demonstrate the tissue neural elements, illustrated by reference to the cornea. J. Anat. (Lond.) 84, 168–195 (1950).Google Scholar
  315. Weiss, P., Edds, M.V.: Spontaneous recovery of muscle following partial denervation. Amer. J. Physiol. 145, 587–607 (1945).Google Scholar
  316. Whittaker, V.P., Dowdall, M.J.: Constituents of cholinergic vesicles. In: La Transmission Cholinergique de L’excitation, pp. 101–117. Paris: INSERM 1973.Google Scholar
  317. Wilson, S.A.K.: Tetanus. In: Neurology, pp. 625–638. London: Arnold 1940.Google Scholar
  318. Withington, J.L.: Comparative studies of the nerve supply of the larynx with special reference to the afferent innervation of the musculature. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 1959.Google Scholar
  319. Wohlfart, G.: Collateral regeneration in partially denervated muscles. Neurology (Minneap.) 8, 175–180 (1958).Google Scholar
  320. Wohlfahrt, G., Hoffman, H.: Reinnervation of muscle fibers in partially denervated muscles in Theiler’s encephalomyelitis of mice (mouse poliomyelitis). Acta psychiat. scand. 31, 345–365 (1956).Google Scholar
  321. Woolf, A.L.: Morphology of the myasthenic neuromuscular junction. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 135, 35–56 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Woolf, A.L.: Pathological anatomy of the intramuscular nerve endings. In: Walton, J.N. (Ed.): Disorders of Voluntary Muscle, 2nd Ed., pp. 203–237. London: Churchill 1969.Google Scholar
  323. Yellin, H.: A histochemical study of muscle spindles and their relationship to extrafusal fiber types in the rat. Anat. Rec. 125, 31–46 (1969).Google Scholar
  324. Zacks, S. I.: The motor endplate. Philadelphia: Saunders 1964.Google Scholar
  325. Zacks, S.L., Metzger, J.F., Smith, C.W., Blumberg, J.M.: Localization of ferritin-labelled botulinus toxin in the neuromuscular junction of the mouse. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 21, 610–633 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Zenker, W., Anzenbacher, H.: On the different forms of myo-neural junction in two types of muscle fiber from the external ocular muscles of the rhesus monkey. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 63, 273–285 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth E. M. Bowden
  • L. W. Duchen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations