Protein synthesis (translation) is a process in which more than one hundred macromolecules work together in a coordinated way. Translation is carried out on ribosomes by tRNA, and on the mRNA template sequence (ch. 3.3). Messenger RNA sequence is translated to the protein sequence. Translation starts from the 5’ end of the mRNA and follows to 3’ end strictly in accordance with ternary code (three nucleotides for one amino acid), that is according to the reading frame. Even a small change in the mRNA sequence can lead to the production of completely different protein, for example when amino acid codon is changed to a stop codon produced protein will be shorter. Frameshift can also occur.
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Golgi Apparatus
- Initiation Codon
- Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor
- Nuclear Export Signal
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