A Constraint-Based Approach to Context

  • Arlette van Wissen
  • Bart Kamphorst
  • Rob van Eijk
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8175)

Abstract

Finding a shared understanding of context that is both theoretically coherent and operationalizable – e.g., for application in robotics, intelligent agent systems, or e-coaching products – is a significant challenge currently present in context research. This paper tries to capture the myriad of factors that together shape the multifaceted notion of context by conceptualizing the boundaries of contexts as a multitude of constraints within which actors operate. Within this ‘constraint-based approach’, context is broken down into different types, distinguishing between external and internal, as well as individual and shared contexts. In addition, it introduces vocabulary to differentiate between types of context transitions. This vocabulary is used to explain misinterpretations of context and misunderstandings between actors about the current context. Finally, the paper proposes a way of understanding context synchronization (or, context conflict resolution) between actors through context negotiation.

Keywords

context constraints transitions negotiation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akman, V., Surav, M.: The use of situation theory in context modeling. Computational Intelligence 13(3), 427–438 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrew, A., Borriello, G., Fogarty, J.: Toward a systematic understanding of suggestion tactics in persuasive technologies. In: de Kort, Y., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 259–270. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bosse, T., Hoogendoorn, M., Klein, M., Treur, J., van der Wal, C.N., van Wissen, A.: Modelling collective decision making in groups and crowds: Integrating social contagion and interacting emotions, beliefs and intentions. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems Journal (JAAMAS) 27(1), 52–84 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clitheroe Jr., H., Stokols, D., Zmuidzinas, M.: Conceptualizing the context of environment and behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology (1998)Google Scholar
  5. Coleman, J.: Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  6. Devlin, K.: Logic and information. Cambridge UP, New York (1991)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Dignum, F., Morley, D., Sonenberg, E., Cavedon, L.: Towards socially sophisticated bdi agents. In: Proc. of 4th International Conference on MultiAgent Systems, pp. 111–118 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. Edmonds, B.: Complexity and context-dependency. In: Foundations of Science. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  9. Gero, J., Smith, G.: Context, situations, and design agents. Knowledge-Based Systems 22(8), 600–609 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McCarthy, J.: Notes on formalizing context. In: Kehler, T., Rosenschein, S. (eds.) Proc. of the Fifth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 555–560. Morgan Kaufmann (1986)Google Scholar
  11. Nissenbaum, H.: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Stanford UP, Stanford (2010)Google Scholar
  12. Ostrom, E.: Collective action and the evolution of social norms. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3), 137–158 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Parsons, T.: The Social System. Routledge, New York (1951)Google Scholar
  14. Rensink, R., O’Regan, J., Clark, J.: To see or not to see: The need for attention to perceive changes in scenes. Psychological Science 8, 368–373 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stokols, D.: Conceptual strategies of environmental psychology. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  16. Stokols, D.: Transformational process in people-environment relations, pp. 233–252. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills (1988)Google Scholar
  17. Traum, D., Rickel, J., Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Negotiation over tasks in hybrid human-agent teams for simulation-based training. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2003, pp. 441–448. ACM, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Young, H.: Social norms and economic welfare. European Economic Review 42, 821–830 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A., Oppermann, R.: An operational definition of context. In: Kokinov, B., Richardson, D.C., Roth-Berghofer, T.R., Vieu, L. (eds.) CONTEXT 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4635, pp. 558–571. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arlette van Wissen
    • 1
  • Bart Kamphorst
    • 2
  • Rob van Eijk
    • 3
  1. 1.VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Faculty Campus Den HaagLeiden UniversityDen HaagThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations