Advertisement

The Expansion of Brazilian Ayahuasca Religions: Law, Culture and Locality

  • Kevin FeeneyEmail author
  • Beatriz Caiuby Labate
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter will explore globalization, diversity, and issues of social justice by examining the global expansion of ayahuasca religions through a lens of transnationalism, and against the backdrop of international drug control. Politics have often equated cultural groups with particular national boundaries, and, proceeding from this premise, have made legal and cultural exceptions for groups that were seen as specifically situated geographically. A perfect illustration of this is in a provision of Article 32 of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which permits signatories to make reservations for “plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances…which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites.” The provision reflects a view that exemptions for psychoactive drug use are acceptable if they are confined to a specific locality, and to a specific culture group. The ayahuasca religions pose a particular challenge to this line of thinking. The Brazilian-based religions of Santo Daime and the União do Vegetal (UDV) have established a global presence with international adherents, followers who are not constrained by national boundaries, and not identifiable as members of any particular ethnic categories. As these religions expand outside of their traditional regional and cultural contexts, they come to be viewed through the Western framework of the “War on Drugs,” and become classified as criminal enterprises. The expansion of the ayahuasca traditions will be used as a foundation for examining issues of international human rights law and protections for religious freedom within the current prohibitionist system and global milieu of cultural transnationalism.

Keywords

Religious Group National Identity Psychoactive Substance Control Substance Drug Convention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Afonso, C. A. (n.d.) “Paródia Sacra,” mimeo. http://www.neip.info/downloads/c_afonso/parodia_sacra.pdf.
  2. Anderson, B. T., Labate, B. C., Meyer, M., Tupper, K. W., Barbosa, P. C. R., Grob, C. S., et al. (2012). Statement on ayahuasca. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23(3), 173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeli, D. H. (1997). A “second look” at crack cocaine sentencing policies: One more try for federal equal protection. American Criminal Law Review, 34, 1211–1241.Google Scholar
  4. Appadurai, A. (1993). Patriotism and its futures. Public Culture, 5(3), 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  6. Appadurai, A. (2003). Sovereignty without territoriality: Notes for a postnational geography. In S. M. Low & D. Lawrence-Zuniga (Eds.), The anthropology of space and place: Locating culture (pp. 337–349). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  7. Balzer, C. (2005). Ayahuasca rituals in Germany: The first steps of the Brazilian Santo Daime religion in Europe. Curare, 28(1), 57–70.Google Scholar
  8. Beeching, J. (1975). The Chinese opium wars. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  9. Bernardino-Costa, J. (Ed.). (2011). Hoasca: Ciência, sociedade e meio ambiente. Campinas, Brazil: Mercado de Letras.Google Scholar
  10. Beyer, S. (2012, April 25). On the origins of ayahuasca. Singing to the Plants. Retrieved February 22, 2013 from http://www.singingtotheplants.com/2012/04/on-origins-of-ayahuasca/.
  11. Blagrove, I., Jr. (Producer, Director). (2002). Roaring lion: The rise of the Rastafari. Jamaica: Rice n Peas Films.Google Scholar
  12. Boiteux, L., Chernicharo, L. P., & Alves, C. S. (2014) Human rights and drug conventions: Searching for humanitarian reasons in drug laws (this volume).Google Scholar
  13. Bourgogne, G. (2011). One hundred days of ayahuasca in France: The story of a legal decision. In B. C. Labate & H. Jungaberle (Eds.), The internationalization of ayahuasca (pp. 353–364). Zurich, Switzerland: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  14. Brabec de Mori, B. (2011). Tracing hallucinations. Contributing to a critical ethnohistory of ayahuasca usage in the Peruvian Amazon. In B. C. Labate & H. Jungaberle (Eds.), The internationalization of ayahuasca (pp. 23–47). Zurich: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  15. Brissac, S. (2010). In the light of Hoasca: An approach to the religious experience of participants of the União do Vegetal. In B. C. Labate & E. MacRae (Eds.), Ayahuasca, ritual and religion in Brazil (pp. 135–160). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  16. Cemin, A. B. (2010). The rituals of Santo Daime: Systems of symbolic constructions. In B. C. Labate & E. MacRae (Eds.), Ayahuasca, ritual and religion in Brazil (pp. 1–20). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  17. Duke, J. A., Aulik, D., & Plowman, T. (1975). Nutritional value of coca. Harvard University: Botanical Museum Leaflets, 24(6), 113–119.Google Scholar
  18. Edmonds, E. B. (1998). The structure and ethos of Rastafari. In N. S. Murrell, W. D. Spencer, & A. A. McFarlane (Eds.), Chanting down Babylon: The Rastafari reader (pp. 349–360). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Feeney, K., & Labate, B. C. (2013). Religious freedom and the expansion of ayahuasca ceremonies in Europe. In C. Adams, A. Waldstein, D. Luke, B. Sessa, & D. King (Eds.), Breaking convention: Essays on psychedelic consciousness (pp. 116–127). London: Strange Attractor Press.Google Scholar
  20. Feeney, K. (2014). Peyote, race, and equal protection in the United States (this volume).Google Scholar
  21. Feilding, A. (2014). Cannabis and the psychedelics: Reviewing the UN Drug Conventions (this volume).Google Scholar
  22. Flores, P. (2013, January 11). Partial, symbolic victory for Bolivia in battle to legalize coca leaf. Associated Press. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from: http://www.newser.com/article/da3o45n80/partial-symbolic-victory-for-bolivia-in-battle-to-legalize-coca-leaf.html.
  23. Goulart, S. (2010). Religious matrices of the União do Vegetal. In B. C. Labate & E. MacRae (Eds.), Ayahuasca, ritual and religion in Brazil (pp. 107–134). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  24. Griggs, B. (1997). Green pharmacy: The history and evolution of Western and herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.Google Scholar
  25. Groisman, A. (2005). Santo Daime in the Netherlands: An anthropological study of a New World religion in a European setting (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of London.Google Scholar
  26. Groisman, A. (2009). Trajectories, frontiers, and reparations in the expansion of Santo Daime to Europe. In T. J. Csordas (Ed.), Transnational transcendence: Essays on religion and globalization (pp. 185–203). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Helmer, J. (1975). Drugs and minority oppression. New York, NY: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jelsma, M. (2011). Lifting the ban on coca chewing: Bolivia’s proposal to amend the 1961 Single Convention [Briefing]. Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies, No. 11. Transnational Institute. http://www.tni.org/briefing/lifting-ban-coca-chewing (Accessed 5 Aug 2011).
  29. Labate, B. C. (2011). Comments on Brazil’s 2010 resolution regulating ayahuasca use. Curare – Zeitschrift für Ethnomedizin und transkulturelle Psychiatrie, 34(4), 298–304.Google Scholar
  30. Labate, B. C. (2012). Ayahuasca religions in Acre: Cultural heritage in the Brazilian borderlands. Anthropology of Consciousness, 23(1), 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Labate, B. C., & Feeney, K. (2012). Ayahuasca and the process of regulation in Brazil and internationally: Implications and challenges. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23(2), 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Labate, B. C., & Jungaberle, H. (Eds.). (2011). The internationalization of ayahuasca. Zurich, Switzerland: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  33. Labate, B. C., & MacRae, E. (Eds.). (2010). Ayahuasca, ritual and religion in Brazil. London, UK: Equinox.Google Scholar
  34. Labate, B. C., MacRae, E., & Goulart, S. L. (2010). Brazilian ayahuasca religions in perspective. In B. C. Labate & E. MacRae (Eds.), Ayahuasca, ritual and religion in Brazil (pp. 1–20). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  35. Labate, B. C., & Pacheco, G. (2010). Opening the portals of heaven: Brazilian ayahuasca music. Munich: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  36. Labate, B. C., Rose, I. S., & Santos, R. G. (2009). Ayahuasca religions: A comprehensive bibliography and critical essays. Santa Cruz, CA: MAPS.Google Scholar
  37. Luna, L. E. (1986). Vegetalismo: Shamanism among the mestizo population of the Peruvian Amazon. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell International.Google Scholar
  38. MacRae, E. (1992). Guided by the moon: Shamanism and the ritual use of ayahuasca in the Santo Daime religion in Brazil. Retrieved February 22, 2013 from http://www.neip.info/downloads/edward/ebook.htm.
  39. Melrose, D. (1982). Bitter pills: Medicines and the third world poor. Oxford, UK: Oxfam Professional.Google Scholar
  40. Marley, B. (1979). Babylon system. On Survival (CD). Los Angeles, CA: Universal Records.Google Scholar
  41. Metaal, P. (2014). Coca in debate: The contradiction and conflict between the UN Drug Conventions and the real world (this volume).Google Scholar
  42. Ott, J. (1993). Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic drugs, their plant sources and history. Kennewick, WA: Natural Products Co.Google Scholar
  43. Randall, R. C., & O’Leary, A. M. (1998). Marijuana Rx: The patients’ fight for medicinal pot. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press.Google Scholar
  44. Rechtbank Haarlem. (2009, March 26). 15/800013-09, LJN BH9844.Google Scholar
  45. Rohde, S. A., & Sander, H. (2011). The development of the legal situation of Santo Daime in Germany. In B. C. Labate & H. Jungaberle (Eds.), The internationalization of ayahuasca (pp. 339–352). Zurich, Switzerland: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  47. Schultes, R. E., & Hofmann, A. (1992). Plants of the gods: Their sacred, healing and hallucinogenic powers. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.Google Scholar
  48. Tupper, K. W. (2011). Ayahuasca, entheogenic education and public policy. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  49. Tupper, K., & Labate, B. C. (2012). Plants, psychoactive substances and the INCB: The control of nature and the nature of control. Human Rights and Drugs, 2(1), 17–28.Google Scholar
  50. van den Plas, A. (2011). Ayahuasca under international law: The Santo Daime churches in the Netherlands. In B. C. Labate & H. Jungaberle (Eds.), The internationalization of ayahuasca (pp. 327–338). Zurich, Switzerland: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  51. Weil, A. (2004). From chocolate to morphine. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  52. World Health Organization (2013). Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health: Pharmaceutical industry. World Health Organization. Retrieved February 22, 2013 from: http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story073/en/index.html.
  53. Zimmer, L., & Morgan, J. P. (1997). Marijuana myths, marijuana facts. New York, NY: The Lindesmith Center.Google Scholar

Cases and Documents

  1. Aglukkaq, L. (2012, October 23). Letter from Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of Health, Ottawa, Canada, to Jessica Rochester, President, Céu do Montréal, Hampstead, Quebec. Retrieved February 22, 2013 from http://www.bialabate.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/CeudoMontreal_HC-Response-Letter-23-Oct-2012-2.pdf.
  2. Church of the Holy Light of the Queen v. Mukasey, 615 F. Supp. 2d 1210 (D. Or. 2009).Google Scholar
  3. Convention on Psychotropic Substances. (1971). Entry into force 16 Aug. 1976, 1019 United Nations Treaty Series 175.Google Scholar
  4. Gonzales v. O Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal, 546 U.S. 418 (2006).Google Scholar
  5. National Directorial Resolution. (2008). 836/INC: Designation as Cultural Patrimony of the Nation extended to the knowledge and traditional uses of ayahuasca as practiced by native Amazonian communities. Lima, Peru: National Institute of Culture. Retrieved June 24, 2008 from http://www.bialabate.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/declarion_ayahuasca_patrimonio_cultural_peru.pdf (version in Spanish) and http://www.bialabate.net/wpcontent/uploads/2008/08/declaration_ayahuasca_patrimony_peru_20081.pdf (version in English).
  6. Office of Controlled Substances. (2008). Exemption under section 56 of the controlled drugs and substances act (public interest) regarding the use of Daime tea for religious purposes [Issue analysis summary] (pp. 375–395) (draft). Ottawa: Health Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Washington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Center for Economic Research and Education - CIDE Región CentroAguascalientesMexico

Personalised recommendations