Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils: Mechanisms and Applications



Essential oils are natural products which combine antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, thus providing natural protection against microbial pathogens and other undesirable agents. Among the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils have been proposed for different biomedical and industrial applications. The antimicrobial mechanisms found in these essential oils have been explained on the basis of their content in natural compounds such as carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and c-terpinene, among others. Although these two essential oils have received much attention, scientists working in the fields of biomedicine and food science, among others, are paying increasing attention to a wider variety of aromatic natural oils in an effort to identify novel and natural applications for the inhibition of microbial pathogens. Accordingly, a detailed revision of the main essential oils and their applications in biomedicine, food science and other industrial fields is presented. The review not only focuses on the main antibacterial applications reported to date, but also in the current and future developments for the inhibition of virus and fungi.


Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Lipid Oxidation Modify Atmosphere Packaging Foodborne Pathogen Silver Catfish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adorjan B, Buchbauer G (2010) Biological properties of essential oils: an updated review. Flavour Fragrance J 25(6):407–426Google Scholar
  2. Alarcon-Rojo AD, Peņa-Gonzalez E et al (2013) Meat quality and lipid oxidation of pork after dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil. World Appl Sci J 21(5):665–673Google Scholar
  3. Amiri A, Dugas R et al (2008) In vitro and in vitro activity of eugenol oil (Eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol 126(1):13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthony KP, Deolu-Sobogun SA et al (2012) Comprehensive assessment of antioxidant activity of essential oils. J Food Sci 77(8):C839–C843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Asensio CM, Nepote V et al (2011) Chemical stability of extra virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil. J Food Sci 76(7):S445–S450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Astani A, Reichling J et al (2010) Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils. Phytotherapy Res 24(5):673–679Google Scholar
  7. Attouchi M, Sadok S (2010) The effect of powdered thyme sprinkling on quality changes of wild and farmed gilthead sea bream fillets stored in ice. Food Chem 119(4):1527–1534Google Scholar
  8. Aureli P, Costantini A et al (1992) Antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Protect 55:344–348Google Scholar
  9. Avila-Ramos F, Pro-Martínez A et al (2012) Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat. Poult Sci 91(2):505–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Avila-Sosa R, Palou E et al (2012) Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Int J Food Microbiol 153(1):66–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baik JS, Lee JA et al (2008) Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils extracted from Korean endemic citrus species. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18(1):74–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bajpai VK, Rahman A et al (2008) In vitro inhibition of food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria by essential oil and leaf extracts of Magnolia liliflora Desr. J Food Sci 73(6):M314–M320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baser KHC, Buchbauer G (eds) (2010) Handbook of essential oils: science, technology, and applications. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  14. Bassolé IHN, Juliani HR (2012) Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules 17(4):3989–4006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Becerril A, Manso S et al (2013) Antimicrobial activity of Lauroyl Arginate Ethyl (LAE), against selected food-borne bacteria. Food Control 32:2Google Scholar
  16. Ben Farhat M, Jordán MaJ et al (2009) Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L. J Agric Food Chem 57(21):10349–10356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Botsoglou N, Fletouris D et al (2003a) Inhibition of lipid oxidation in long-term frozen stored chicken meat by dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Food Res Int 36(3):207–213Google Scholar
  18. Botsoglou NA, Govaris A et al (2003b) Antioxidant activity of dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in long-term frozen stored turkey meat. J Agric Food Chem 51(10):2930–2936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burt S (2004) Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int J Food Microbiol 94(3):223–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carmo ES, Lima EdO et al (2008) The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species. Braz J Microbiol 39(2):362–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cetin B, Özer H et al (2009) Chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil of Artemisia incana (L.) Druce and antimicrobial activity against foodborne microorganisms. Chem Biodivers 6(12):2302–2310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cetin B, Özer H et al (2010) Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms. J Med Food 13(1):196–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cichoski AJ, Cansian RL et al (2011) Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 31(2):436–442Google Scholar
  24. Cosentino S, Tuberoso C et al (1999) In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 29(2):130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cháfer M, Sánchez-Gonzáles L et al (2012) Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils. J Food Sci 77(8):E182–E187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H et al (2007) The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytother Res 21(6):501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaves A, Stanford K et al (2008) Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 145(1):396–408Google Scholar
  28. Darughe F, Barzegar M et al (2012) Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil in cake. Int Food Res J 19:1253–1260Google Scholar
  29. De Oliveira TLC, de Araújo Soares R et al (2011) Antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. essential oil against Clostridium perfringens type A inoculated in mortadella-type sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite. Int J Food Microbiol 144(3):546–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. de Souza EL, de Barros JC et al (2010) Influence of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on enterotoxin production, membrane permeability and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Food Microbiol 137(2–3):308–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Di Pasqua R, Betts G et al (2007) Membrane toxicity of antimicrobial compounds from essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 55(12):4863–4870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dikbas N, Kotan R et al (2008) Control of Aspergillus flavus with essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis. Int J Food Microbiol 124(2):179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dorman H, Deans S (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88(2):308–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dung NT, Kim JM et al (2008) Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the ethanol extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry buds. Food Chem Toxicol 46(12):3632–3639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. El-Habib R (2012) Antifungal activity of some essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. J Food Agric Environ 10(2):274–279Google Scholar
  36. Elazquível P, Azizkhani M et al (2012) The effect of essential oils on norovirus surrogates. Food Control 32:275–278Google Scholar
  37. Erkan N (2012) The effect of thyme and garlic oil on the preservation of vacuum-packaged hot smoked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Bioprocess Technol 5(4):1246–1254Google Scholar
  38. Erkmen O, Özcan MM (2008) Antimicrobial effects of Turkish propolis, pollen, and laurel on spoilage and pathogenic food-related microorganisms. J Med Food 11(3):587–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Faleiro M (2011) The mode of antibacterial action of essential oils. In: Méndez-Vilas A (ed). Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances. Formatex Research Center, BadajozGoogle Scholar
  40. Fasseas M, Mountzouris K et al (2008) Antioxidant activity in meat treated with oregano and sage essential oils. Food Chem 106(3):1188–1194Google Scholar
  41. Frangos L, Pyrgotou N et al (2010) Combined effects of salting, oregano oil and vacuum-packaging on the shelf-life of refrigerated trout fillets. Food Microbiol 27(1):115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Garozzo A, Timpanaro R et al (2009) In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Lett Appl Microbiol 49(6):806–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gholivand MB, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M et al (2010) Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Psammogeton canescens. Food Chem Toxicol 48(1):24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Giatrakou V, Kykkidou S et al (2008) Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage. J Food Sci 73(4):M167–M173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Giatrakou V, Ntzimani A et al (2010) Effect of chitosan and thyme oil on a ready to cook chicken product. Food Microbiol 27(1):132–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gill AO, Delaquis P et al (2002) Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham. Int J Food Microbiol 73(1):83–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goulas AE, Kontominas MG (2007) Combined effect of light salting, modified atmosphere packaging and oregano essential oil on the shelf-life of sea bream (Sparus aurata): Biochemical and sensory attributes. Food Chem 100(1):287–296Google Scholar
  48. Govaris A, Botsoglou E et al (2011) Antibacterial activity of oregano and thyme essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in feta cheese packaged under modified atmosphere. LWT-Food Sci Technol 44(4):1240–1244Google Scholar
  49. Govaris A, Solomakos N et al (2010) The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against Salmonella enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage. Int J Food Microbiol 137(2):175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gutierrez J, Barry-Ryan C et al (2008) The antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients. Int J Food Microbiol 124(1):91–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hammer KA, Carson CF et al (1999) Influence of organic matter, cations and surfactants on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. J Appl Microbiol 86(3):446–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hao Y-Y, Brackett RE et al (1998a) Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila by Plant Extracts in Refrigerated Cooked Beef. J Food Prot 61(3):307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hao YY, Brackett RE et al (1998b) Efficacy of plant extracts in inhibiting Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated, cooked poultry. Food Microbiol 15(4):367–378Google Scholar
  54. Harpaz S, Glatman L et al (2003) Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer). J Food Prot 66(3):410–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Irkin R, Esmer OK (2010) Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken breast meat under aerobic, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging conditions with or without the presence of bay essential oil at 4. DEG. C. Food Sci Technol Res 16(4):285–290Google Scholar
  56. Irkin R, Korukluoglu M (2009) Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple–carrot juice. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6(3):387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Joshi SC, Verma AR et al (2010) Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species. Food Chem Toxicol 48(1):37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kalemba D, Kunicka A (2003) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem 10(10):813–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kambouche N, Merah B et al (2008) Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria. J Med Food 11(3):593–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Karapinar M (1985) The effects of citrus oils and some spices on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Int J Food Microbiol 2(4):239–245Google Scholar
  61. Karatzas AK, Kets EPW et al (2001) The combined action of carvacrol and high hydrostatic pressure on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. J Appl Microbiol 90(3):463–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim J, Marshall MR et al (1995a) Antibacterial activity of some essential oil components against five foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food Chem 43(11):2839–2845Google Scholar
  63. Kim JM, Marshall MR et al (1995b) Antibacterial activity of carvacrol, citral, and geraniol against Salmonella typhimurium in culture medium and on fish cubes. J Food Sci 60(6):1364–1368Google Scholar
  64. Kim S-S, Baik JS et al (2008) Biological activities of Korean Citrus obovoides and Citrus natsudaidai essential oils against acne-inducing bacteria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72(10):2507–2513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Knobloch K, Pauli A et al (1989) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J Essent Oil Res 1(3):119–128Google Scholar
  66. Koch C, Reichling J et al (2008) Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedecine 15(1–2):71–78Google Scholar
  67. Kovač K, Diez-Valcarce M et al (2012) Natural plant essential oils do not inactivate non-enveloped enteric viruses. Food Environ Virol 4(4):209–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Krkic N, Lazic V et al (2012) Application of chitosan coating with oregano essential oil on dry fermented sausage. J Food Nutr Res 51:60–68Google Scholar
  69. Kunicka Styczynska A (2011) Activity of essential oils against food spoiling yeast. A review. Flavour Fragrance J 26(5):326–328Google Scholar
  70. Kykkidou S, Giatrakou V et al (2009) Effect of thyme essential oil and packaging treatments on fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during storage at 4 °C. Food Chem 115(1):169–175Google Scholar
  71. Laciar A, Ruiz M et al (2009) Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae). Revista Argentina de Microbiología 41(4):226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lambert R, Skandamis PN et al (2001) A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol 91(3):453–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lang G, Buchbauer G (2012) A review on recent research results (2008–2010) on essential oils as antimicrobials and antifungals. A review. Flavour Fragrance J 27(1):13–39Google Scholar
  74. Lemay M-J, Choquette J et al (2002) Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model. Int J Food Microbiol 78(3):217–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Loizzo MR, Saab A et al (2008) Phytochemical analysis and in vitro evaluation of the biological activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of Cedrus libani A. Rich. Phytomedicine 15(1):79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lorenzi V, Muselli A et al (2009) Geraniol restores antibiotic activities against multidrug-resistant isolates from gram-negative species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(5):2209–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Maggi F, Bramucci M et al (2009) Composition and biological activity of essential oil of Achillea ligustica All. (Asteraceae) naturalized in central Italy: Ideal candidate for anti-cariogenic formulations. Fitoterapia 80(6):313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mahboubi M, Ghazian Bidgoli F (2010) Antistaphylococcal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its synergy with vancomycin. Phytomedicine 17(7):548–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mahmoud BS, Yamazaki K et al (2004) Bacterial microflora of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its shelf-life extension by essential oil compounds. Food Microbiol 21(6):657–666Google Scholar
  80. Marangoni C, Moura NFd (2011) Sensory profile of Italian salami with coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 31(1):119–123Google Scholar
  81. Masniyom P, Benjama O et al (2012) Effect of turmeric and lemongrass essential oils and their mixture on quality changes of refrigerated green mussel (Perna viridis). Int J Food Sci Technol 47(5):1079–1085Google Scholar
  82. McMahon M, Tunney M et al (2008) Changes in antibiotic susceptibility in staphylococci habituated to sub-lethal concentrations of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Lett Appl Microbiol 47(4):263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mejlholm O, Dalgaard P (2002) Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products. Lett Appl Microbiol 34(1):27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mendoza-Yepes MJ, Sanchez-Hidalgo LE et al (1997) Inhibition of Listeria Monocytogenes and other bacteria by a plant essential oil (DMC) In Spanish soft cheese. J Food Saf 17(1):47–55Google Scholar
  85. Meneses R, Ocazionez RE et al (2009) Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 8(1):8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Menghini L, Leporini L et al (2010) Chemical composition and inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori of the essential oil of Apium nodiflorum (Apiaceae). J Med Food 13(1):228–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Miguel G, Faleiro L et al (2008) Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to essential oil of Dittrichia viscosa subsp. revoluta. Phytother Res 22(2):259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Miguel G, Simoes M et al (2004) Composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Thymus caespititius, Thymus camphoratus and Thymus mastichina. Food Chem 86(2):183–188Google Scholar
  89. Miguel MG (2010) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules 15(12):9252–9287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Misharina T, Samusenko A (2008) Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures. Appl Biochem Microbiol 44(4):438–442Google Scholar
  91. Mitchell TC, Stamford TLM et al (2010) Origanum vulgare L. essential oil as inhibitor of potentially toxigenic Aspergilli. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 30(3):755–760Google Scholar
  92. Moreira M, Ponce A et al (2005) Inhibitory parameters of essential oils to reduce a foodborne pathogen. LWT-Food Sci Technol 38(5):565–570Google Scholar
  93. Nascimento P, Alviano W et al (2008) Hyptis pectinata essential oil: chemical composition and anti-Streptococcus mutans activity. Oral Dis 14(6):485–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Bryan CA, Crandall PG et al (2008) Orange essential oils antimicrobial activities against Salmonella spp. J Food Sci 73(6):M264–M267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ocak I, Celik A et al (2012) Antifungal activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Origanum hypericifolium. Int J Food Prop 15(1):38–48Google Scholar
  96. Olmedo R, Nepote V et al (2012) Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants. Grasas Aceites 63(1): 5–13Google Scholar
  97. Olmedo R, Nepote V et al (2008) Effect of the essential oil addition on the oxidative stability of fried–salted peanuts. Int J Food Sci Technol 43(11):1935–1944Google Scholar
  98. Omidbeygi M, Barzegar M et al (2007) Antifungal activity of thyme, summer savory and clove essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium and tomato paste. Food Control 18(12):1518–1523Google Scholar
  99. Ouattara B, Sabato SF et al (2001) Combined effect of antimicrobial coating and gamma irradiation on shelf life extension of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.). Int J Food Microbiol 68(1–2):1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Oussalah M, Caillet S et al (2004) Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of milk protein-based film containing essential oils for the preservation of whole beef muscle. J Agric Food Chem 52(18):5598–5605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ozcakmak S, Dervisoglu M et al (2012) Effects of thyme and rosemary essential oils on the growth of two aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains. J Appl Botany Food Quality 83(2):170–174Google Scholar
  102. Özcan M, Chalchat J et al (2001) Essential oil composition of Turkish mountain tea (Sideritis spp.). Food Chem 75(4):459–463Google Scholar
  103. Özcan MM, Arslan D (2011) Antioxidant effect of essential oils of rosemary, clove and cinnamon on hazelnut and poppy oils. Food Chem 129(1):171–174Google Scholar
  104. Papazoglou S, Tsiraki M et al (2012) Effect of thyme oil on the preservation of vacuum-packaged chicken liver. J Food Sci 77(8):M473–M480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pellecuer J, Jacob M et al (1979) Therapeutic value of the cultivated mountain savory (Satureia montana L.: Labiatae). In: II international symposium on spices and medicinal plants, vol 96Google Scholar
  106. Polatoglu K, Demirci F et al (2010) Antibacterial activity and the variation of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. essential oils from Turkey. J Oleo Sci 59(4):177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pyrgotou N, Giatrakou V et al (2010) Quality assessment of salted, modified atmosphere packaged rainbow trout under treatment with oregano essential oil. J Food Sci 75(7):M406–M411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rasooli I, Fakoor MH et al (2008) Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils. Int J Food Microbiol 122(1):135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rattanachaikunsopon P, Phumkhachorn P (2008) Diallyl sulfide content and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria of chives (Allium schoenoprasum). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72(11):2987–2991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ravishankar S, Zhu L et al (2008) Plant-derived compounds inactivate antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains. J Food Protect 71(6):1145–1149Google Scholar
  111. Ravishankar S, Zhu L et al (2009) Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products. J Food Sci 74(8):M440–M445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Razzaghi-Abyaneh M, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M et al (2008) Inhibitory effects of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Int J Food Microbiol 123(3):228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rodrigues N, Malheiro R et al (2012) Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Mill.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating. Food Chem Toxicol 50:2894–2901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Roller S, Ernest N et al (2009) The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). J Altern Complement Med 15(3):275–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Roller S, Seedhar P (2002) Carvacrol and cinnamic acid inhibit microbial growth in fresh-cut melon and kiwifruit at 4° and 8°C. Lett Appl Microbiol 35(5):390–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Saddi M, Sanna A et al (2007) Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 6(1):10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sangwan N, Farooqi A et al (2001) Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regul 34(1):3–21Google Scholar
  118. Sanjuás-Rey M, Pourashouri P et al (2012) Effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on the microbiological and chemical quality of refrigerated (4 °C) ready-to-eat squid rings. Int J Food Sci Technol 47(7):1439–1447Google Scholar
  119. Sant’Anna JRd, Franco CCdS et al (2009) Genotoxicity of Achillea millefolium essential oil in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans. Phytother Res 23(2):231–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schmidt E, Bail S et al (2009) Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha piperita. Nat Product Commun 4(8):1107–1112Google Scholar
  121. Schnitzler P, Schuhmacher A et al (2008) Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses. Phytomed Int J Phytoth Phytoph 15(9):734Google Scholar
  122. Sell C (2006) The chemistry of fragances: from perfumer to consumer. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  123. Shan B, Cai YZ et al (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food Chem 53(20):7749–7759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sharififar F, Moshafi M et al (2007) In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of endemic Zataria multiflora Boiss. Food Control 18(7):800–805Google Scholar
  125. Sharma N, Tripathi A (2008) Effects of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck epicarp essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger (L.) Van Tieghem. Microbiol Res 163(3):337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shukla R, Kumar A et al (2009) Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production. Int J Food Microbiol 135(2):165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Simitzis P, Symeon G et al (2010) The effects of dietary oregano oil supplementation on pig meat characteristics. Meat Sci 84(4):670–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Singh N, Singh RK et al (2002) Efficacy of chlorine dioxide, ozone, and thyme essential oil or a sequential washing in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and baby carrots. LWT - Food Sci Technol 35(8):720–729Google Scholar
  129. Sivropoulou A, Nikolaou C et al (1997) Antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiviral activities of Salvia fructicosa essential oil. J Agric Food Chem 45(8):3197–3201Google Scholar
  130. Skandamis PN, Nychas GJE (2001) Effect of oregano essential oil on microbiological and physico-chemical attributes of minced meat stored in air and modified atmospheres. J Appl Microbiol 91(6):1011–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J et al (2001) The potential application of plant essential oils as natural food preservatives in soft cheese. Food Microbiol 18(4):463–470Google Scholar
  132. Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J et al (2004) Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils on the production of enterotoxins A and B and α-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol 53(10):1023–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sökmen M, Serkedjieva J et al (2004) In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens. J Agric Food Chem 52(11):3309–3312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Solomakos N, Govaris A et al (2008a) The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil, nisin, and their combination against Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef during refrigerated storage. Food Microbiol 25(1):120–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Solomakos N, Govaris A et al (2008b) The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil, nisin and their combination against Escherichia coli O157: H7 in minced beef during refrigerated storage. Meat Sci 80(2):159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Souza E, Stamford T et al (2007) Effectiveness of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to inhibit the growth of food spoiling yeasts. Food Control 18(5):409–413Google Scholar
  137. Sridhar SR, Rajagopal RV et al (2003) Antifungal activity of some essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 51(26):7596–7599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tassou CC, Drosinos EH et al (1995) Effects of essential oil from mint (Mentha piperita) on Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in model food systems at 4° and 10°C. J Appl Microbiol 78(6):593–600Google Scholar
  139. Tohidpour A, Sattari M et al (2010) Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine 17(2):142–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Tsigarida E, Skandamis P et al (2000) Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and autochthonous flora on meat stored under aerobic, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging conditions with or without the presence of oregano essential oil at 5 °C. J Appl Microbiol 89(6):901–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Ultee A, Slump RA et al (2000) Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice. J Food Prot 63(5):620–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Veeck APL, Klein B et al (2012) Lipid stability during the frozen storage of fillets from silver catfish exposed in vivo to the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Brown. J Sci Food Agric 93(4):955–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Vila R, Santana AI et al (2010) Composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Plinia cerrocampanensis, a new source of α-bisabolol. Bioresour Technol 101(7):2510–2514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y et al (2008) Antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils. Food Control 19(12):1130–1138Google Scholar
  145. Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz Navajas Y et al (2010) Antioxidant activity of essential oils of five spice plants widely used in a Mediterranean diet. Flavour Fragrance J 25(1):13–19Google Scholar
  146. Vrinda Menon K, Garg SR (2001) Inhibitory effect of clove oil on Listeria monocytogenes in meat and cheese. Food Microbiol 18(6):647–650Google Scholar
  147. Weissinger WR, McWatters KH et al (2001) Evaluation of volatile chemical treatments for lethality to Salmonella on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. J Food Prot 64(4):442–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. WHO (2002) World Health Report 2002: World Health Report: Reducing Risks to Health Noncommunicable Diseases, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  149. Wong PY, Kitts DD (2006) Studies on the dual antioxidant and antibacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts. Food Chem 97(3):505–515Google Scholar
  150. Xing Y, Li X et al (2010) Antifungal activities of cinnamon oil against Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo fruit test. Int J Food Sci Technol 45(9):1837–1842Google Scholar
  151. Yang E-J, Kim SS et al (2010a) Inhibitory effects of Fortunella japonica var. margarita and Citrus sunki essential oils on nitric oxide production and skin pathogens. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 57(1):15–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Yang S-A, Jeon S-K et al (2010b) Comparative study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of six essential oils and their components. Nat Prod Res 24(2):140–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Yerlikaya P, Gokoglu N (2010) Inhibition effects of green tea and grape seed extracts on lipid oxidation in bonito fillets during frozen storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 45(2):252–257Google Scholar
  154. Yoon W-J, Kim S-S et al (2009) Abies koreana essential oil inhibits drug-resistant skin pathogen growth and LPS-induced inflammatory effects of murine macrophage. Lipids 44(5):471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Zabol I (2012) The effects of coating and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on chemical attributes of silver carp fillet stored at 4°C. Int Food Res J 19:685–690Google Scholar
  156. Zygadlo J, Lamarque A et al (1995) Composition of the flower oils of some Lippia and Aloysia species from Argentina. J Essent Oil Res 7(6):593–595Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, School of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of Santiago de CompostelaLugoSpain
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology, Institute for Marine Research (CSIC)VigoSpain

Personalised recommendations