Querying Incomplete Geospatial Information in RDF
Incomplete information has been studied in-depth in relational databases and knowledge representation. It is also an important issue in Semantic Web frameworks such as RDF, description logics, and OWL 2. In , we introduced RDF i , an extension of RDF for representing incomplete information using constraints. We defined a semantics for RDF i and studied SPARQL query evaluation in this framework. Given the current interest in publishing geospatial datasets as linked data (e.g., by Ordnance Survey in the UK), RDF i is an excellent framework for encoding, possibly incomplete, qualitative and quantitative geospatial information which is found in these published datasets. RDF i is also interesting because when the constraint language used can express the topological relations of RCC-8 , the recent OGC standard GeoSPARQL  for querying geospatial information expressed in RDF, becomes a special case of RDF i .
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