Advertisement

Cancer Survivorship in Adults

Chapter
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 197)

Abstract

With the favorable trend regarding survival of cancer in the Western world, there is an increasing focus among patients, clinicians, researchers, and politicians regarding cancer survivors’ health and well-being. Their number is rapidly growing and more than 3 % of the adult populations in Western countries have survived cancer for 5 years or more. Cancer survivors are at increased risk for a variety of late effects after treatment, some life-threatening such as secondary cancer and cardiac diseases, others might negatively impact on their daily functioning and quality of life. The latter might include fatigue, anxiety disorders and difficulties returning to work while depression does not seem to be more common among survivors than in the general population. Still, the majority of survivors regain their health and social functioning. The field of cancer survivorship research has been rapidly growing. Models for follow-up care of cancer survivors have been proposed, but how to best integrate the knowledge of the field into clinical practice with adequate follow-up of cancer survivors at risk for developing late effects is still an unsolved question.

Keywords

Cancer Survivor Breast Cancer Survivor Work Ability Disability Pension Marriage Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott-Anderson K, Kwekkeboom KL (2012) A systematic review of sexual concerns reported by gynecological cancer survivors. Gynecol Oncol 124:477–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Cancer Society (2012) Cancer Treatment and Survivorship Facts and Figures 2012–2013Google Scholar
  3. Bober SL, Varela VS (2012) Sexuality in adult cancer survivors: challenges and intervention. J Clin Oncol 30:3712–3719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brydøy M, Oldenburg J, Klepp O et al (2009) Observational study of prevalence of long-term Raynaud-like phenomena and neurological side effects in testicular cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:1682–1695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlsen K, Dalton SO, Frederiksen K et al (2008) Cancer and the risk for taking early retirement pension. Scand J Publ Health 36:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cramp F, Daniel J (2008) Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD006145. doi:  10.1002/14651858.CD006145.pub2
  7. Curigliano G, Cardinale D, Suter T et al (2012) Cardiovascular toxicity induced by chemotherapy, targeted agents and radiotherapy: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Ann Oncol 23:155–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahl AA, Bremnes R, Dahl O, Klepp et al (2007) Is the sexual function compromised in long-term testicular cancer survivors? Eur Urol 52:1438–1447Google Scholar
  9. Darby SC, Ewertz M, McGale P et al (2013) Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 368:987–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Boer AGEM, Taskila T, Ojajärvi A et al (2009) Cancer survivors and unemployment—a meta-analysis and meta-regression. JAMA 301:753–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Ruiter MB, Reneman L, Boogerd W et al (2011) Cerebral hyporesponsiveness and cognitive impairment 10 years after chemotherapy for breast cancer. Hum Brain Map 32:1209–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Den Ousten BL, Traa MJ, Thong MSY et al (2012) Higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction in colon and rectal cancer survivors compared with the normative population: a population-based study. Eur J Cancer 48:3161–3170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donovan KA, McGinty HL, Jacobsen PB (2013) A systematic review of research using the diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. Psychooncology 22:737–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Earle CC, Ganz PA (2012) Cancer survivorship care: don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good. J Clin Oncol 30:3764–3768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fossa SD, Loge JH, Dahl AA (2008) Long-term survivorship after cancer: how far have we come? Ann Oncol S5:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fosså S, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Dahl A (2008) Long term physical sequelae after adult-onset cancer. J Canc Survivorship 2:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fung C, Fosså SD, Milano MT et al (2013) Solid tumors following chemotherapy or surgery for testicular nonseminoma: A population-based study of 12,691 patients. J Clin Oncol (in press) Google Scholar
  18. Greer JA, Solis JM, Temel JS et al (2011) Anxiety disorders in long-term survivors of adult cancers. Psychosom 52:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grunfeld E, Julian JA, Pond G et al (2011) Evaluating survivorship care plans: results of a randomized, clinical trial of patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 29:4755–4762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamre H, Zeller B, Kanellopoulos A et al (2013) High prevalence of chronic fatigue in adult long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma during childhood and adolescence. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hauglann B, Benth JS, Fosså SD et al (2012) A cohort study of permanently reduced work ability in breast cancer patients. J Cancer Surviv 6:345–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haugnes HS, Wethal T, Aass N et al (2010) Cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity in long-term survivors of testicular cancer: a 20-year follow-up study. J Clin Oncol 28:4649–4657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hess SL, Johannsdottir IM, Hamre H et al (2011) Adult survivors of childhood malignant lymphoma are not aware of their risk of late effects. Acta Oncol 50:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jean Pierre P, Winters PC, Ahles TA et al (2011) Prevalence of self-reported memory problems in adult cancer survivors: a national cross-sectional study. J Oncol Pract 8:30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kadan-Lottick NS, Robison LL, Gurney JG et al (2002) Childhood cancer survivors’ knowledge about their past diagnosis and treatment: childhood cancer survivor study. JAMA 287:1832–1839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade D et al (2006) Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science 312:1908–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kenney LB, Cohen LE, Shnorhavorian M et al (2012) Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 30:3408–3416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kiserud CE, Schover LR, Dahl AA et. (2009) Do male lymphoma survivors have impaired sexual function? J Clin Oncol 27: 6019–6026Google Scholar
  29. Kollmannsberger C, Beyer J, Droz JP et al (1998) Secondary leukemia following high cumulative doses of etoposide in patients treated for advanced germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 16:3386–3391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Koppelmanns V, de Ruiter MB, van der Lijn F et al (2012) Global and focal brain volume in long-term breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 132:1099–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lenihan D, Oliva S, Chow EJ et al (2013) Cardiac toxicity in cancer survivors. Cancer 119:2131–2142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liavaag AH, Tonstad S, Pripp AH et al (2009) Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome and elevated Framingham risk score in epithelial ovarian cancer survivors: a controlled observational study. Int J Gynecol Cancer 19:634–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ligibel J (2012) Lifestyle factors in cancer survivorship. J Clin Oncol 30:3697–3704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Loge JH, Ekeberg Ø, Kaasa S (1998) Fatigue in the general Norwegian population—normative data and associations. J Psychosom Res 45:53–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lustberg MB, Reinbolt RE, Shapiro CL (2012) Bone health in adult cancer survivorship. J Clin Oncol 30:3665–3674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Metzger ML, Meacham LR, Patterson B et al (2013) Female reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: guidelines for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications. J Clin Oncol 31:1239–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mehnert A, Koch U (2008) Psychological comorbidity and health-related quality of life and its association with awareness, utilization, and need for psychosocial support in a cancer register-based sample of long-term breast cancer survivors. J Psychosom Res 64:383–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mehnert A (2011) Employment and work-related issues in cancer survivors. Critical Rev Oncol/Hematol 77:109–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Minton O, Richardson A, Sharpe M et al (2010) Drug therapy for the management of cancer-related fatigue. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7:CD006704Google Scholar
  40. Mitchell AJ, Ferguson DW, Paul J et al (2013) Depression and anxiety in long-term cancer survivors compared with spouses and healthy controls. Lancet Oncol. doi: 10.1016.S1470-2045(13)70244-4 Google Scholar
  41. Mols F, Thong MSY, van de Poll-Franse L et al (2012) Type D (distressed) personality is associated with poor quality of life and mental health among 3080 cancer survivors. J Affect Dis 136:26–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Morton LM, Gilbert ES, Hall P et al (2012) Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors. Ann Oncol 23:3081–3091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Haaland CF et al (2005) Side effects and cancer-related stress determine quality of life in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:3061–3068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nesvold IL, Reinertsen KV, Fosså SD et al (2011) The relation between arm/shoulder problems and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Canc Surviv 5:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oeffinger KC, McCab MS (2006) Models for delivering survivorship care. J Clin Oncol 24:5117–5124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oldenburg J, Kraggerud SM, Cvancarova M et al (2007) Cisplatin-induced long-term hearing impairment is associated with specific glutathione s-transferase genotypes in testicular cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 25:708–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pachman DR, Barton DL, Swetz KM et al (2012) Troublesome symptoms in cancer survivors: fatigue, insomnia, neuropathy, and pain. J Clin Oncol 30:3687–3696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pearce NJ, Sanson-Fisher R, Campbell HS (2008) Measuring quality of life in cancer survivors: a methodological review of existing scales. Psychooncology 17:629–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Radbruch L, Strasser F, Elsner F et al (2008) Fatigue in palliative care patients-an EAPC approach. Palliat Med 22:13–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rowland JH (2007). Survivorship research: past, present and future. In: Ganz PA (ed) Cancer survivorship today and tomorrow. Springer, New York, pp 28–42Google Scholar
  51. Rowland JH, Kent EE, Forsythe LP et al. (2013) Cancer survivorship research in Europe and the United States: where have we been, where are we going, and what can we learn from each other? Cancer 119(S11):2094–2108Google Scholar
  52. Simard S, Thewes B, Humphris G et al (2013) Fear of cancer recurrence in adult cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. doi: 10.1007/s11764-013.0272-z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Skaali T, Fosså SD, Bremnes R et al (2009) Fear of recurrence in long-term testicular cancer survivors. Psychooncology 18:580–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith SK, Zimmerman S, Williams et al (2011) Post-traumatic stress symptoms in long-term non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma survivors. Does time heal? J Clin Oncol 29:4526–4533Google Scholar
  55. Stensheim H, Cvancarova M, Møller B et al (2011) Pregnancy after adolescent and adult cancer: a population-based matched cohort study. Int J Cancer 129:1225–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stone PC, Minton O (2008) Cancer-related fatigue. Eur J Canc 44:1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Swerdlow AJ, Barber JA, Hudson GV et al (2000) Risk of second malignancy after Hodgkin’s disease in a collaborative British cohort: the relation to age at treatment. J Clin Oncol 18:498–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Swerdlow AJ, Schoemaker MJ, Allerton R et al (2001) Lung cancer after Hodgkin’s disease: a nested case-control study of the relation to treatment. J Clin Oncol 19:1610–1618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Syse A (2008) Does cancer affect marriage rates? J Cancer Surviv 2:205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Syse A, Geller B (2011) A cross-cultural perspective on challenges facing comparative cancer survivorship research. J Cancer Epidemiol 2011:689025. doi: 10.1155/2011/689025 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Syse A, Tønnessen M (2012) Cancer’s unequal impact on incomes in Norway. Acta Oncol 51:480–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Taskila T, Martikainen R, Hietanen P et al (2007) Comparative study of work ability between cancer survivors and their referents. Eur J Cancer 43:914–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. The Cancer Registry of Norway (2010) Cancer in Norway 2010Google Scholar
  64. Thewes B, Butow P, Zachariae R et al (2012) Fear of cancer recurrence: a systematic literature review of self-report measures. Psycho-Oncol 21:571–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thorsen L, Nystad W, Stigum H et al (2005) The association between self-reported physical activity and prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder in long-term survivors of testicular cancer and men in a general population sample. Support Care Cancer 13:637–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Travis LB, Holowaty EJ, Bergfeldt K et al (1999) Risk of leukemia after platinum-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 340:351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. van den Berg TIJ, Elders LAM, de Zwart BCH et al (2009) The effects of work-related factors on the work ability index: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med 66:211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Verdecchia A, Francisci S, Brenner H et al (2007) Recent cancer survival in Europe: a 2000–2002 period analysis of EUROCARE-4 data. Lancet Oncol 8:784–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Willemse PM, Burggraaf J, Hamdy NA et al (2013) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk in chemotherapy-treated testicular germ cell tumour survivors. Br J Cancer 109(1):295–296 (in press) Google Scholar
  70. Windebank AJ, Grisold W (2008) Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 13:27–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wittmann D, Northhouse L, Foley S et al (2009) The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment. Int J Impotence Res 21:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zebrack BJ, Ganz PA, Bernaards CA et al (2006) Assessing the impact of cancer: development of a new instrument for long-term survivors. Psychooncology 15:407–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Resource Center for late effects after Cancer TreatmentOslo University HospitalOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations