Advertisement

Fear of Progression

Chapter
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 197)

Abstract

Fear of progression (or fear of recurrence) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and cancer treatments. However, elevated levels of fear of progression can become dysfunctional, affecting well-being, quality of life, and social functioning. Research has shown that fear of progression is one of the most frequent distress symptoms of patients with cancer and with other chronic diseases. As a clear consensus concerning clinically relevant states of fear of progression is currently lacking, it is difficult to provide a valid estimate of the rate of cancer patients who clearly suffer from fear of progression. However, recent systematic reviews suggest that probably 50 % of cancer patients experience moderate to severe fear of progression. Furthermore, many patients express unmet needs in dealing with the fear of cancer spreading. These results underline the necessity to provide effective psychological treatments for clinical levels of fear of progression. A few psychosocial interventions for treating fear of progression have been developed so far. Our own, targeted intervention study showed that dysfunctional fear of progression can be effectively treated with a brief group therapy.

Keywords

Cancer Survivor Generalize Anxiety Disorder Family Caregiver Inpatient Rehabilitation Health Anxiety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ames J, Crowe M, Colbourne L et al (2009) Patients’ supportive care needs beyond the end of cancer treatment: a prospective, longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol 27:6172–6179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck AT, Steer RA (1993) Beck anxiety inventory manual. Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg P, Book K, Dinkel A et al (2011) Progredienzangst bei chronischen Erkrankungen [Fear of progression in chronic diseases]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 61:32–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butow PN, Bell ML, Smith AB et al (2013) Conquer fear: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of a psychological intervention to reduce fear of cancer recurrence. BMC Cancer 13:201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crist JV, Grunfeld EA (2013) Factors reported to influence fear of recurrence in cancer patients: a systematic review. Psychooncology 22:978–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dankert A, Duran G, Engst-Hastreiter U et al (2003) Progredienzangst bei Patienten mit Tumorerkrankungen, Diabetes mellitus und entzündlich-rheumatischen Erkrankungen [Fear of progression in patients with cancer, diabetes mellitus and chronic arthritis]. Rehabilitation 42:155–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dinkel A, Herschbach P, Berg P et al (2012) Determinants of long-term response to group therapy for dysfunctional fear of progression in chronic diseases. Behav Med 38:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghazali N, Cadwallader E, Lowe D et al (2013) Fear of recurrence among head and neck cancer survivors: longitudinal trends. Psychooncology 22:807–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gurevich M, Devins GM, Rodin GM (2002) Stress response syndromes and cancer: conceptual and assessment issues. Psychosomatics 43:259–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harrison JD, Young JM, Price MA et al (2009) What are the unmet supportive care needs of people with cancer? A systematic review. Support Care Cancer 17:1117–1128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heins MJ, Korevaar JC, Rijken et al (2013) For which health problems do cancer survivors visit their general practitioner? Eur J Cancer 49: 211–218Google Scholar
  12. Heinrichs N, Zimmermann T, Huber B et al (2012) Cancer distress reduction with a couple-based skills training: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Behav Med 43:239–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herschbach P, Berg P, Dankert A et al (2005) Fear of progression in chronic diseases. Psychometric properties of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire (FoP-Q). J Psychosom Res 58:505–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herschbach P, Berg P, Waadt S et al (2010a) Group psychotherapy of dysfunctional fear of progression in patients with chronic arthritis or cancer. Psychother Psychosom 79:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Herschbach P, Book K, Dinkel A et al (2010b) Evaluation of two group therapies to reduce fear of progression in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 18:471–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herschbach P, Keller M, Knight L et al (2004) Psychological problems of cancer patients: a cancer distress screening with a cancer-specific questionnaire. Br J Cancer 91:504–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hodges LJ, Humphris GM (2009) Fear of recurrence and psychological distress in head and neck cancer patients and their carers. Psychooncology 18:841–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoyer J, Beesdo K, Gloster AT et al (2009) Worry exposure versus applied relaxation in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychother Psychosom 78:106–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Humphris G, Ozakinci G (2008) The AFTER intervention: a structured psychological approach to reduce fear of recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer. Br J Health Psychol 13:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanatas A, Ghazali N, Lowe D et al (2013) Issues patients would like to discuss at their review consultation: variation by early and late stage oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal subsites. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 270:1067–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim Y, Carver CS, Spillers RL et al (2012) Dyadic effects of fear of recurrence on the quality of life of cancer survivors and their caregivers. Qual Life Res 21:517–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koch L, Jansen L, Brenner H et al (2013) Fear of recurrence and disease progression in long-term (≥ 5 years) cancer survivors—a systematic review of quantitative studies. Psychooncology 22:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kwakkenbos L, van den Hoogen FHJ, Custers J et al (2012) Validity of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire-Short Form in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Care Res 64:930–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lebel S, Tomei C, Feldstain A et al (2013) Does fear of recurrence predict cancer survivors health care use? Support Care Cancer 21:901–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee-Jones C, Humphris G, Dixon R et al (1997) Fear of cancer recurrence—a literature review and proposed cognitive formulation to explain exacerbation of recurrence fears. Psychooncology 6:95–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lengacher CA, Johnson-Mallard V, Post-White J et al (2009) Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for survivors of breast cancer. Psychooncology 18:1261–1272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mehnert A, Berg P, Henrich G et al (2009) Fear of cancer progression and cancer-related intrusive cognitions in breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology 18:1273–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mehnert A, Herschbach P, Berg P et al (2006) Progredienzangst bei Brustkrebspatientinnen—Validierung der Kurzform des Progredienzangstfragebogens PA-F-KF [Fear of progression in breast cancer patients—validation of the short form of the fear of progression questionnaire (FoP-Q-SF)]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother 52:274–288Google Scholar
  29. Mehnert A, Koch U, Sundermann C et al (2013) Predictors of fear of recurrence in patients one year after cancer rehabilitation: a prospective study. Acta Oncol. 52:1102–1109Google Scholar
  30. Mellon S, Kershaw TS, Northouse LL et al (2007) A family-based model to predict fear of recurrence for cancer survivors and their caregivers. Psychooncology 16:214–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitchell AJ, Chan M, Bhatti H et al (2011) Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies. Lancet Oncol 12:160–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moorey S (1996) When bad things happen to rational people: cognitive therapy in adverse life circumstances. In: Salkovskis PM (ed) Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy. Guilford, New York, pp 450–469Google Scholar
  33. Myers SB, Manne SL, Kissane DW et al (2013) Social-cognitive processes associated with fear of recurrence among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers. Gynecol Oncol 128:120–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. NCCN Guideline Distress Management, Version 2.2103. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/distress.pdf. Accessed 01 June 2013
  35. Northouse LL (1981) Mastectomy patients and the fear of cancer recurrence. Cancer Nurs 4:213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogers SN, El-Sheikha J, Lowe D (2009) The development of a Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to help reveal patients concerns in the head and neck clinic. Oral Oncol 45:555–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sabariego C, Brach M, Herschbach P et al (2011) Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy of dysfunctional fear of progression in cancer patients. Eur J Health Econ 12:489–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Salander P (2010) Motives that cancer patients in oncological care have for consulting a psychologist—an empirical study. Psychooncology 19:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Savard J, Ivers H (2013) The evolution of fear of cancer recurrence during the cancer care trajectory and its relationship with cancer characteristics. J Psychosom Res 74:354–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shim EJ, Shin YW, Oh DY et al (2010) Increased fear of progression in cancer patients with recurrence. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 32:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Simard S, Thewes B, Humphris G et al (2013) Fear of cancer recurrence in adult cancer survivors: a systematic review of quantitative studies. J Cancer Suriv 7:300–322Google Scholar
  42. Singer S, Das-Munshi J, Brähler E (2010) Prevalence of mental health conditions in cancer patients in acute care—a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 21:925–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Skaali T, Fosså SD, Bremnes R et al (2009) Fear of recurrence in long-term testicular cancer survivors. Psychooncology 18:580–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R et al (1983) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  45. Thewes B, Butow P, Bell ML et al (2012a) Fear of cancer recurrence in young women with a history of early-stage breast cancer: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and association with health behaviors. Support Care Cancer 20:2651–2659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thewes B, Butow P, Zachariae R et al (2012b) Fear of cancer recurrence: a systematic literature review of self-report measures. Psychooncology 21:571–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vehling S, Koch U, Ladehoff N et al (2012) Prävalenz affektiver und Angststörungen bei Krebs: Systematischer Literaturreview und Metaanalyse [Prevalence of affective and anxiety disorders in cancer: systematic literature review and meta-analysis]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 62:249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vickberg SMJ (2003) The concerns about recurrence scale (CARS): a systematic measure of women’s fears about the possibility of breast cance recurrence. Ann Behav Med 25:16–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waadt S, Duran G, Berg P et al (2011) Progredienzangst. Manual zur Behandlung von Zukunftsängsten bei chronisch Kranken [Fear of progression. Treatment manual]. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  50. Zimmermann T, Alsleben M, Heinrichs N (2012) Progredienzangst gesunder Lebenspartner von chronisch erkrankten Patienten [Fear of progression in partners of chronically ill patients]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 62:344–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zimmermann T, Herschbach P, Wessarges M et al (2011) Fear of progression in partners of chronically ill patients. Behav Med 37:95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Roman-Herzog-Krebszentrum (RHCCC)Klinikum rechts der Isar Technische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychosomatische Medizin und PsychotherapieKlinikum rechts der Isar Technische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations