Advertisement

Treatment of Sleep Disorders

Chapter
  • 973 Downloads

Abstract

Sleep disturbances have a negative impact over mood, cognition, performance, and well-being. Quality of sleep and sleep physiology can be studied using several methods. There are also many different classifications for sleep disorders (eg: in the DSM-5, the diagnosis of primary insomnia has been renamed insomnia disorder, in order to avoid the differentiation of primary and secondary insomnia). The impact and nature of sleep problems in the cancer population are presently a hot research topic. The most prevalent sleep problems in the Oncology setting are Insomnia (the most common sleep complaint), Hypersomnolence Disorder (HD), and Restless Legs Syndrome. Breathing-related sleep Disorder (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) is common in head and neck cancer patients. Parasomnias and Narcolepsy are occasionally referred to. In this work, the term insomnia will refer to sleep problems (difficulty falling or staying asleep, poor sleep quality, and/or short sleep duration) and insomnia syndrome (the cluster of several and severe sleep), with or without full criteria for insomnia disorder. Despite broad discrepancies in the literature, the most consistent studies have figured a general prevalence of insomnia among cancer patients between 25.9 and 57.9.

Insomnia is frequently secondary to multiple and synergistic factors: etiological factors may be directly related to the tumor’s biology or symptoms, oncologic treatments, or lifestyle changes. The path between pain and sleep in cancer patients is bidirectional, as sleep loss also leads to increased pain. Insomnia, depression, and fatigue are often present as a symptom cluster that should be treated overall.

Chemotherapy deregulates immune function, enhances inflammatory response, and interferes with circadian rhythms; when chronic, these effects are predictors of acute and long-term poor quality of sleep either in cancer patients or survivors. Other treatments like synthetic glucocorticoids may disrupt diurnal cortisol rhythms and alter the circadian component of sleep. Considering the medical burden of cancer patients, one should minimize pharmacotherapy only focused on poor sleep and try to scope the health problems altogether. Recent studies highlight the importance of non-pharmacologic approaches like sleep hygiene measures and behavioral interventions. The newer hypnotics are safe, have few side effects, and may help within other cancer symptoms (pain, pruritus, nausea, anorexia, hot flashes, fatigue, and memory decline).

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Sleep Disorder Sleep Problem Primary Insomnia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Akekushi T, et al. Associated and predictive factors of sleep disturbance in advanced cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2007;16:888–94.Google Scholar
  2. Alex J, Chan M, Bhatti H, et al. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:160–74.Google Scholar
  3. Allade R, Siegel JM. Unearthing the phylogenetic roots of sleep. Curr Biol. 2008;18(15):670–9.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Ancoli-Israeli S, Rissling M, Neikrug A, et al. Light treatment prevents fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(6):1211–9.Google Scholar
  6. Bardwell WA, Profant J, Casden DR, et al. The relative importance of specific risk factors for insomnia in women treated for early-stage breast cancer. Psychooncology. 2008;17(1):9–18.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bazire S. Psychotropic drug directory 2010. 1st ed. Aberdeen: HealthComm UK Ltd; 2010.Google Scholar
  8. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006;119:1005–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger AM, Von Essen S, Kuhn BR. Adherence, sleep and fatigue outcomes after adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy: results of a feasibility intervention study. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2003;30(3):513–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berger AM, Kuhn BR, Farr LA, et al. One-year outcomes of a behavioral therapy intervention trial on sleep quality and cancer-related fatigue. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(35):6033–40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blumenthal M, editor. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; 1998.Google Scholar
  12. Borbely AA. A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol. 1982;1:195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bottomley A. Depression in cancer: a literature review. Eur J Cancer Care. 1998;7:181–91.Google Scholar
  14. Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, Andreski P. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39(6):411–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown RE, Basheer R, McKenna JT, et al. Control of sleep and wakefulness. Physiol Rev. 2012;92(3):1087–187.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush S, Bruera E. The assessment and management of delirium in cancer patients. Oncologist. 2009;14:1039–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): a new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28:193–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cankurtaran ES, Ozalp E, Soygur H, et al. Mirtazapine improves sleep and lowers anxiety and depression in cancer patients: superiority over imipramine. Support Care Cancer. 2008;16(11):1291–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Capuron L, Ravaud A, Dantzer R. Early depressive symptoms in cancer patients receiving Interleukin 2 and/or Interferon alfa-2b therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(10):2143–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carpenter JS, Johnson D, Wagner L, Andrykowski M. Hot flashes and related outcomes in breast cancer survivors and matched comparison women. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29(3):E16–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caruso R, Grassi L, Nanni MG, Riba M. Psychopharmacology in psycho-oncology. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013;15(9):393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng KK, Yeung RM. Impact of mood disturbance, sleep disturbance, fatigue and pain among patients receiving cancer therapy. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2013;22:70–8.Google Scholar
  23. Chesson Jr AL, Anderson WM, Littner M, Davila D, Hartse K, Johnson S, et al. Practice parameters for the nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep. 1999;22(8):1128–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chokroverty S, Avidan AY. Sleep and its disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, editors. Bradley’s neurology in clinical practice. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012. p. 1641.Google Scholar
  25. Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Hatfield AK, et al. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(9):592–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Clevenger L, Schrepf A, Christensen D, et al. Sleep disturbance, cytokines and fatigue in women with ovarian cancer. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26(7):1037–44.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Colagiuri B, Christensen S, Jensen AB, et al. Prevalence and predictors of sleep difficulty in a national cohort of women with primary breast cancer three to four months postsurgery. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;42(5):710–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Twenty years of research on citokyne-induced sickness behaviour. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21(2):153–60.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, et al. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(1):46–56.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Davidson JR. Sleep disturbance interventions for oncology patients: steps forward and issues arising. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:395–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Davidson JR, MacLean AW, Brundage MD, et al. Sleep disturbances in cancer patients. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:1309–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Derogatis LR, Morrow GR, Fetting J, et al. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients. JAMA. 1983;249(6):751–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dimsdale JE, Norman D, DeJardin D, Wallace MS. The effect of opioids on sleep architecture. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3(1):33–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dodd MJ, Miaskowski C, Paul SM. Symptom clusters and their effect on the functional states of patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001;28:465–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dodd MJ, Miaskowski C, Lee KA. Occurrence of symptom clusters. J Nat Cancer Inst Monogr. 2004;2004:76–8.Google Scholar
  36. Engstrom CA, Strohl RA, Rose L, Lewandowski L, Stefanek ME. Sleep alterations in cancer patients. Cancer Nurs. 1999;22(2):143–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fiorentino L, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep dysfunction in patients with cancer. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2007;9(5):337–46.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ford DE, Kameron DB. Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders: an opportunity for prevention. JAMA. 1989;262:1479–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fortner BV, Stepanski EJ, Wang SC, et al. Sleep and quality of life in breast cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;24:471–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Friedman M, et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among patients with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 2011;111:1917–9.Google Scholar
  41. Gillin JC. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders? Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1998;393:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grond S, Zech D, Diefenbach C, Bichoff A. Prevalence and pattern of symptoms in patients with cancer pain: a prospective evaluation of 1635cancer patients referred to a pain clinic. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1994;9(6):372–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harrison LB, Zelefsky MJ, Pfister DG, et al. Detailed quality of life assessment in patients treated with primary radiotherapy for squamous cell cancer of the base of the tongue. Head Neck. 1997;19(3):169–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoffman M, Morrow GR, Roscoe JA, et al. Cancer patients expectations of experiencing treatment related side effects: a university of Rochester Cancer Center-Community Clinical Oncology Program study of 938 patients from community practices. Cancer. 2004;101(4):851–7.Google Scholar
  45. Innominato PF, Focan C, Gorlia T, et al. Circadian Rhythm in rest and activity: a biological correlate of quality of life and a predictor of survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69(11):4700–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Innominato PF, Levi FA, Bjarnason GA. Chronotherapy and the molecular clock: clinical implications in oncology. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010;62(9–10):979–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Joffe H, Partridge A, Giobbie-Hurder A, et al. Augmentation of venlafaxine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with zolpidem improves sleep and quality of life in breast cancer patients with hot flashes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause. 2010;17(5):908–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kapsimalis F, Richardson G, Opp MR, Kryger M. Cytokines and normal sleep. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005;11(6):481–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kay DC. Human sleep during morphine intoxication. Psychopharmacologia. 1975;44(2):117–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neidert GL, et al. Opioid effects on computer-derived sleep and EEg parameters in nondependent human addicts. Sleep. 1979;2(2):175–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Krystal AD, Edinger JD. Measuring sleep quality. Sleep Med. 2008;9 suppl 1:S10–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Krystal AD, et al. Sustained efficacy of eszopiclone over 6 months of nightly treatment: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adults with chronic insomnia. Sleep. 2003;26:793–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Krystal AD, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of zolpidem extended-release 12.5mg administered 3 to 7 nights per week for 24 weeks, in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study. Sleep. 2008;31:79–90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kunderman B, Spernal J, Huber MT, et al. Sleep deprivation affects thermal pain threshold but not somatosensory threshold in healthy volunteers. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(6):932–7.Google Scholar
  55. Kushida AC. Ropinirole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2006;2(4):407–19.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Labbate LA, Fava M, Rosenbaum JF, Arana GW. Handbook of psychiatric drug treatment. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 232–53.Google Scholar
  57. Langford DJ, Lee K, Miaskowski C. Sleep disturbance interventions in oncology patients and family caregivers: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:397–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Laugsand EA, Jakobsen G, Kaasa S, Klepstad P. Inadequate symptom control in advanced cancer patients across Europe. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19:2005–14.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee BN, Dantzer R, Langley KE, et al. A citokyne-based neuroimmunologic mechanism of cancer-related symptoms. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2004;11(5):279–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lee-Cheong Jr T. Sleep medicine: essentials and review. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008. p. 28–9.Google Scholar
  61. Levi F, Zidani R, Misset JL. Randomized multicenter trial of chronotherapy with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and folinic acid in metastatic colorectal cancer. International Organization for Cancer Chronotherapy. Lancet. 1997;350(9079):681–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lévi F, Okyar A, Dulong S, et al. Circadian timing in cancer treatments. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010;50:377–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewis SA, Oswald I, Evans JI, Akindale MO. Heroin and human sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1970;28(4):429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu L, Marler MR, Parker BA, et al. The relationship between fatigue and light exposure during chemotherapy. Support Cancer Care. 2005;13(12):1010–7.Google Scholar
  65. Liu L, Rissling M, Natarajan L, et al. The longitudinal relationship between fatigue and sleep in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Sleep. 2012;35(2):237–45.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Majde JA, Krueger JM. Links between the innate immune system and sleep. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(6):1188–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Massie MJ, Holland JC. Depression and the cancer patient. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51:12–7. discussion 18–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McCraken LM, Iverson GL. Disrupted sleep patterns and daily functioning in patients with chronic pain. Pain Res Manag. 2002;7(2):75–9.Google Scholar
  69. Mercadante S, Girelli D, Casuccio A. Sleep disorders in advanced cancer patients: prevalence and factors associated. Support Care Cancer. 2004;12:355–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Miaskowski C, Dodd MJ, Lee KA. Symptom clusters: the new frontier in symptom management research. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2004;2004:17–21.Google Scholar
  71. Miller AH, Ancoli-Israle S, Bower JE, et al. Neuroendocrine-immune mechanisms of behavioural comorbidities in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(6):971–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mills PJ, Ancoli-Israel S, Parker B, et al. Predictors of inflammation in response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast cancer. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22(1):98–104.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P. Induction of neurasthenic musculoskeletal pain syndrome by selective sleep stage deprivation. Psychosom Med. 1976;38(1):35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Morin CM. Insomnia: psychological assessment and management. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  75. Moszczynski A, Murray BJ. Neurobiological aspects of sleep physiology. Neurol Clin. 2012;30:963–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Omne-Ponten M, Holmberg L, Burns T, et al. Determinants of psychosocial outcome after operation for breast cancer. Results of prospective comparative interview study following mastectomy and breast conservation. Eur J Cancer. 1992;28A(6–7):1062–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Onen SH, Alloui A, Gross A, et al. The effects of total sleep deprivation, selective sleep interruption and sleep recovery on pain tolerance threshold in healthy subjects. J Sleep Res. 2001;10(1):35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ortiz-Tudela EIP, Iurisci I, Karaboué A et al. Chemotherapy-induced circadian disruption in cancer patients. XII congress of European Biological Rhythms Society; 20–26 Aug 2011; Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  79. Ortiz-Tudela EIP, Rol MA, Madrid JA, Levi F. Circadian patterns in integrated wrist temperature, rest activity and position (TAP) as a biomarker for personalized cancer chronotherapeutics. SRBR meeting. 19–23 May 2012; Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  80. Ostacoli L, Saini A, Ferini-Strambi L, et al. Restless legs syndrome and its relationship with anxiety, depression, and quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Qual Life Res. 2010;19(4):531–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Otte JL, Carpenter JS, Zhong X, Johnstone PA. Feasibility study of acupuncture for reducing sleep disturbances and hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Clin Nurse Spec. 2011;25(5):228–36.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Oxman AD, Flottorp S, Håvelsrud K, et al. A televised, web-based randomized trial of an herbal remedy (valerian) for insomnia. PLoS One. 2007;2:e1040.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Page MS, Johnson LB. Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for sleep-wake disturbances. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2006;10(6):753–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Palesh OG, Collie K, Batiuchok D, et al. A longitudinal study of depression, pain, and stress as predictors of sleep disturbance among women with metastatic cancer. Biol Psychol. 2007;75(1):37–44.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Palesh O, Zeitzer JM, Conrad A, et al. Vagal regulation, cortisol and sleep disruption in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):441–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Palesh OG, Roscoe JA, Mustian KM, et al. Prevalence, demographics, and psychological associations of sleep disruption in cancer patients: University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:292–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Palesh OG, Peppone L, Innominato PF, et al. Prevalence, putative mechanisms, and current management of sleep problems during chemotherapy for cancer. Nat Sci Sleep. 2012a;4:151–62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Palesh OG, Mustian KM, Peppone LJ, et al. Impact of paroxetine on sleep problems in 426 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a trial from the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program. Sleep Med. 2012b;13(9):1184–90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Payne RJ, et al. High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with head and neck cancer. J Otolaryngol. 2005;34:304–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Payne J, Piper B, Rabinowitz I, Zimmerman B. Biomarkers, fatigue, sleep and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer; a pilot study. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2006;33(4):775–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Reite M, Weissberg M, Ruddy J. Clinical manual for evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders. 1st ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2009. p. 17–26.Google Scholar
  92. Reyes-Gibby CC, Wu X, Spitz M, et al. Molecular epidemiology, cancer related symptoms and cytokines pathway. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(8):777–85.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rich T, Innominato PF, Boerner J, et al. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behaviour, serum cortisol rhythm and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(5):1757–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Roehrs T, Hyde M, Blaisdell B, et al. Sleep loss and REM sleep loss are hyperalgesic. Sleep. 2006;29:145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Roscoe JA, Kaufman ME, Matteson-Rusby SE, et al. Cancer-related fatigue and sleep disorders. Oncologist. 2007;12 suppl 1:35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rumble ME, Keefe FJ, Edinger JD, et al. A pilot study investigating the utility of the cognitive-behavioral model of insomnia in early stage lung cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005;30:160–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Saini A, Ostacoli E, Sguazzotti S, et al. High prevalence of restless legs syndrome in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: relationship with anxiety, depression and quality of life perception. JCO ASCO Annual meeting proceedings Part I. 2007; 25 (18S).Google Scholar
  98. Savard J. Insomnia. In: Davis MP, Feyer PC, Ortner P, Zimmermann C, editors. Supportive oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 187–99.Google Scholar
  99. Savard J, Ivers H. The initiation of chemotherapy but not radiation therapy coincides with increased insomnia. Psychooncology. 2012;21:37–8.Google Scholar
  100. Savard J, Morin CM. Insomnia in the context of cancer: a review of a neglected problem. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(3):895–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Savard J, Simard S, Blanchet J, et al. Prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors for insomnia in the context of breast cancer. Sleep. 2001;24(5):583–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Savard J, Davindson JR, Ivers H, et al. The association between nocturnal hot flashes and sleep in breast cancer survivors. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;27(6):513–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Savard J, Simard S, Ivers H, et al. Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, part II: immunologic effects. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:6097–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Savard J, Villa J, Ivers H, et al. Prevalence, natural course and risk factors of insomnia comorbid with cancer over a 2-month period. J Clin Oncol. 2009a;27:5233–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Savard J, Liu L, Natarajan L, et al. Breast cancer patients have progressively impaired sleep-wake activity rhythms during chemotherapy. Sleep. 2009b;32(9):1155–60.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Seruga B, Bernstein LJ, Tannock IF. Cytokines and their relationship to the symptoms and outcome of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8(11):887–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sethi KD, Mehta SH. A clinical primer on restless legs syndrome: what we know and what we don’t know. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18(5 Suppl):S83–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sharma N, Hansen CH, O’Connor M, et al. Sleep problems in cancer patients: prevalence and association with distress and pain. Psychooncology. 2012;21(9):1003–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Spielman AJ, Caruso LS, Glovinsky PB. A behavioural perspective on insomnia treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1987;10(4):541–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stahl SM. Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology—neuroscientific basis and practical applications. 3rd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  111. Stark D, Kiely M, Smith A, et al. Anxiety disorders in cancer patients: their nature, associations, and relation to quality of life. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(14):3137–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Steffen A, Graefe H, Gehrking E, König IR, Wollenberg B. Sleep apnoea in patients after treatment of head neck cancer. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129(11):1300–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Stein KD, Jacobsen PB, Hann DM, et al. Impact of hot flashes on quality of life among postmenopausal women being treated for breast cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(6):436–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stepanski EJ, Burgess HJ. Sleep and cancer. Sleep Med Clin. 2007;2:67–75.Google Scholar
  115. Stern TM, Auckley D. Obstructive sleep apnea following treatment for head and neck cancer. ENT J. 2007;86(2):101–3.Google Scholar
  116. TA77: Guidance on the use of zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone for the short-term management of insomnia. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), April 2004.Google Scholar
  117. Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. The Maudsley—prescribing guidelines. 10th ed. London: Informa Healthcare; 2009.Google Scholar
  118. Teunissen SC, Wesker W, Kruitwagen C, et al. Symptom prevalence in patients with incurable cancer: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007;34(1):94–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Diagnostic and coding manual. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2005.Google Scholar
  120. Theobald DE. Cancer pain, fatigue, distress, and insomnia in cancer patients. Clin Cornerstone. 2004;6(suppl 1D):S15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Trevorrow T. Assessing sleep problems of older adults. In: Lichtenberg PA, editor. Handbook of assessment in clinical gerontology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010. p. 410–4.Google Scholar
  122. Tsunoda A, Nakao K, Hiratsuka K, Kusano M. Prospective analysis of quality of life in the first year after colorectal surgery. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(1):77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Van Someren EJ, Swart-Heikens J, Endert E, et al. Long term effects of cranial irradiation for childhood malignancy on sleep in adulthood. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150(4):503–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wang XS, Shi Q, Williams LA, et al. Inflammatory cytokines are associated with the development of symptom burden in patients with NSCLC undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(6):968–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Weinhouse G, Schwab R, Watson P, et al. Bench-to-bedside review: Delirium in ICU patients—importance of sleep deprivation. Crit Care. 2009;13:234. doi: 10.1186/cc8131.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wengstrom Y, Haggmark C, Strander H, Forsberg C. Perceived symptoms and quality of life in women with breast cancer receiving radiation therapy. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2000;4(2):78–88. discussion 89–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Yue HJ, Dimsdale JE. Psycho-oncology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatry Service, Psychosocial DepartmentInstituto Português de Oncologia LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Psychiatry ServiceHospital Prof. Dr. Fernando FonsecaAmadoraPortugal

Personalised recommendations