Electrolyte Disorders in the Newborn

  • Michael L. MoritzEmail author


Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level <135 mEq/L [1]. It is one of the most common electrolyte disorders encountered in the newborn in both the outpatient and inpatient setting. The cause is usually easily identified by history, but in many cases, it can be elusive. Hyponatremia has typically been viewed as relatively benign condition, but there is increasing evidence in both children and adults suggesting that hyponatremia is a serious condition [2]. Numerous studies in adults have revealed that even mild and asymptomatic hyponatremia is an independent predictor of mortality [3]. Studies in neonates have revealed that hyponatremia is an independent predictor of poor neuromotor outcome and has been associated with impaired neonatal growth and development, sensorineural hearing loss, cerebral palsy, and intracranial hemorrhages [4, 5]. The most serious complication of hyponatremia is that of hyponatremic encephalopathy. Increasing evidence has revealed that the majority of hyponatremic encephalopathy in children is iatrogenic and related to errors in parenteral fluid therapy [6].


Serum Sodium Serum Potassium Bartter Syndrome Hypotonic Fluid Symptomatic Hyponatremia 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NephrologyChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCPittsburghUSA

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