Advertisement

Peritoneal Dialysis in the Newborn

  • Joshua J. Zaritsky
  • Bradley A. WaradyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has long been considered an effective treatment modality for neonates with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and is the modality of choice when treating neonates with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) needing chronic renal replacement therapy. Its popularity and success largely derive from its simplicity and effectiveness as a means of removing solute and fluid in even the smallest patients. In its most basic terms, the removal of plasma solutes (solute clearance) is achieved by diffusion of the solute down a concentration gradient between dialysate and blood and across the semipermeable peritoneal membrane. Fluid removal (ultrafiltration) is achieved by the osmolarity of the dialysate creating an osmotic gradient along which fluid moves across the membrane and is drained from the patient. Access for PD can be achieved easily and even emergently in the unstable patient with AKI at the bedside, and the continuous and gradual provision of both solute clearance and ultrafiltration aims to mimic the function of the native kidney.

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Acute Kidney Injury Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Dialysis Initiation Peritoneal Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Gouyon JB, Guignard JP (2000) Management of acute renal failure in newborns. Pediatr Nephrol 14(10–11):1037–1044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haycock GB (2003) Management of acute and chronic renal failure in the newborn. Semin Neonatol 8(4):325–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Askenazi DJ, Ambalavanan N, Hamilton K, Cutter G, Laney D, Kaslow R, Georgeson K, Barnhart DC, Dimmitt RA (2011) Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy independently predict mortality in neonatal and pediatric noncardiac patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12(1):e1–e6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Unal S, Bilgin L, Gunduz M, Uncu N, Azili MN, Tiryaki T (2012) The implementation of neonatal peritoneal dialysis in a clinical setting. J Matern Fetal and Neonatal Med 25(10):2111–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agras PI, Tarcan A, Baskin E, Cengiz N, Gurakan B, Saatci U (2004) Acute renal failure in the neonatal period. Ren Fail 26(3):305–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bojan M, Gioanni S, Vouhe PR, Journois D, Pouard P (2012) Early initiation of peritoneal dialysis in neonates and infants with acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery is associated with a significant decrease in mortality. Kidney Int 82:474–481CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group (2012) KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2(Suppl. 2012):1–138Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arikan AA, Zappitelli M, Goldstein SL, Naipaul A, Jefferson LS, Loftis LL (2011) Fluid overload is associated with impaired oxygenation and morbidity in critically ill children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 13(3):253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldstein SL (2009) Overview of pediatric renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury. Semin Dial 22(2):180–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goldstein SL, Devarajan P (2012) Pediatrics: acute kidney injury leads to pediatric patient mortality. Nat Rev Nephrol 6(7):393–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sutherland SM, Zappitelli M, Alexander SR, Chua AN, Brophy PD, Bunchman TE, Hackbarth R, Somers MJ, Baum M, Symons JM, Flores FX, Benfield M, Askenazi D, Chand D, Fortenberry JD, Mahan JD, McBryde K, Blowey D, Goldstein SL (2011) Fluid overload and mortality in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: the prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy registry. Am J Kidney Dis 55(2):316–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Payen D, de Pont AC, Sakr Y, Spies C, Reinhart K, Vincent JL (2008) A positive fluid balance is associated with a worse outcome in patients with acute renal failure. Crit Care 12(3):R74CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Warady BA, Bunchman T (2000) Dialysis therapy for children with acute renal failure: survey results. Pediatr Nephrol 15(1–2):11–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bunchman TE (1996) Acute peritoneal dialysis access in infant renal failure. Perit Dial Int 16(Suppl 1):S509–S511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldstein SL (2011) Continuous renal replacement therapy: mechanism of clearance, fluid removal, indications and outcomes. Curr Opin Pediatr 23(2):181–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zobel G, Ring E, Kuttnig M, Grubbauer HM (1991) Five years experience with continuous extracorporeal renal support in paediatric intensive care. Intensive Care Med 17(6):315–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Symons JM, Brophy PD, Gregory MJ, McAfee N, Somers MJ, Bunchman TE, Goldstein SL (2003) Continuous renal replacement therapy in children up to 10 kg. Am J Kidney Dis 41(5):984–989CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Picca S, Dionisi-Vici C, Abeni D, Pastore A, Rizzo C, Orzalesi M, Sabetta G, Rizzoni G, Bartuli A (2001) Extracorporeal dialysis in neonatal hyperammonemia: modalities and prognostic indicators. Pediatr Nephrol 16(11):862–867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wong KY, Wong SN, Lam SY, Tam S, Tsoi NS (1998) Ammonia clearance by peritoneal dialysis and continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration. Pediatr Nephrol 12(7):589–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bunchman TE, Meldrum MK, Meliones JE, Sedman AB, Walters MB, Kershaw DB (1992) Pulmonary function variation in ventilator dependent critically ill infants on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 8:75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Geary DF, Schaefer F (2008) Comprehensive pediatric nephrology. Mosby/Elsevier, Philadelphia, xvii, 1099 pGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Auron A, Warady BA, Simon S, Blowey DL, Srivastava T, Musharaf G, Alon US (2007) Use of the multipurpose drainage catheter for the provision of acute peritoneal dialysis in infants and children. Am J Kidney Dis 49(5):650–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chadha V, Warady BA, Blowey DL, Simckes AM, Alon US (2000) Tenckhoff catheters prove superior to cook catheters in pediatric acute peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 35(6):1111–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rusthoven E, van de Kar NA, Monnens LA, Schroder CH (2004) Fibrin glue used successfully in peritoneal dialysis catheter leakage in children. Perit Dial Int 24(3):287–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sojo ET, Grosman MD, Monteverde ML, Bailez MM, Delgado N (2004) Fibrin glue is useful in preventing early dialysate leakage in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 24(2):186–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watson AR, Gartland C (2001) Guidelines by an Ad Hoc European Committee for elective chronic peritoneal dialysis in pediatric patients. Perit Dial Int 21(3):240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    NKF-K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access: update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis, 2001. 37(1 Suppl 1):S137–S181Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS) (2008) [cited 7/9/2010]. Available from https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/Annual%20Report%20-2008.pdf
  29. 29.
    Alarabi AA, Petersson T, Danielson BG, Wikstrom B (1994) Continuous peritoneal dialysis in children with acute renal failure. Adv Perit Dial 10:289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Golej J, Kitzmueller E, Hermon M, Boigner H, Burda G, Trittenwein G (2002) Low-volume peritoneal dialysis in 116 neonatal and paediatric critical care patients. Eur J Pediatr 161(7):385–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kostic D, Rodrigues AB, Leal A, Metran C, Nagaiassu M, Watanabe A, Ceccon ME, Tannuri U, Koch VH (2010) Flow-through peritoneal dialysis in neonatal enema-induced hyperphosphatemia. Pediatr Nephrol 25(10):2183–2186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arbeiter AK, Kranz B, Wingen AM, Bonzel KE, Dohna-Schwake C, Hanssler L, Neudorf U, Hoyer PF, Buscher R (2010) Continuous venovenous haemodialysis (CVVHD) and continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in the acute management of 21 children with inborn errors of metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 25(4):1257–1265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McNiece KL, Ellis EE, Drummond-Webb JJ, Fontenot EE, O’Grady CM, Blaszak RT (2005) Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis in children following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Pediatr Nephrol 20(7):972–976CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chitalia VC, Almeida AF, Rai H, Bapat M, Chitalia KV, Acharya VN, Khanna R (2002) Is peritoneal dialysis adequate for hypercatabolic acute renal failure in developing countries? Kidney Int 61(2):747–757CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flynn JT (2002) Choice of dialysis modality for management of pediatric acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 17(1):61–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carey WA, Talley LI, Sehring SA, Jaskula JM, Mathias RS (2007) Outcomes of dialysis initiated during the neonatal period for treatment of end-stage renal disease: a North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies special analysis. Pediatrics 119(2):e468–e473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Atlas of ESRD: United States Renal Data System (USRDS) (2010) [cited 7/8/2010]. Available from http://www.usrds.org/2010/pdf/v2_08.pdf
  38. 38.
    Schaefer F, Borzych D, Azocar M, Munarriz RL, Sever L, Aksu N, Barbosa LS, Galan YS, Xu H, Cocia PA, Szabo A, Wong W, Salim R, Vidal E, Pottoore S, Warady BA (2012) Impact of global economic disparities on practices and outcomes of chronic PD in children: insights from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) Registry. Perit Dial Int 32:399–409CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Warady BA, Martz K (2011) Providing or withholding dialysis for neonates: a report of the NAPRTCS. Presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting, DenverGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Neu AM, Sander A, Borzych-Dużałkac D, Watson AR, Vallése PG, Ha IS, Patel H, Askenazi D, Bałasz-Chmielewskac I, Lauroneni J, Groothoffj JW, Feber J, Schaefer F, Warady BA (2012) Co-morbidities in chronic pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients: a report of the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN). Perit Dial Int 32:410–418CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brunner FP, Fassbinder W, Broyer M, Oules R, Brynger H, Rizzoni G, Challah S, Selwood NH, Dykes SR, Wing AJ (1988) Survival on renal replacement therapy: data from the EDTA Registry. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3(2):109–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beauchamp TL, Childress JF (2001) Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, xi, 454 pGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mavroudis C, Mavroudis CD, Farrell RM, Jacobs ML, Jacobs JP, Kodish ED (2011) Informed consent, bioethical equipoise, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cardiol Young 21(Suppl 2):133–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zeigler VL (2003) Ethical principles and parental choice: treatment options for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatr Nurs 29(1):65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Geary DF (1998) Attitudes of pediatric nephrologists to management of end-stage renal disease in infants. J Pediatr 133(1):154–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Teh JC, Frieling ML, Sienna JL, Geary DF (2011) Caregivers’ attitude to management of end-stage renal disease in infacbrsnts. Perit Dial Int 31:459–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rees L (2007) Long-term peritoneal dialysis in infants. Perit Dial Int 27(Suppl 2):S180–S184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaiser BA, Polinsky MS, Stover J, Morgenstern BZ, Baluarte HJ (1994) Growth of children following the initiation of dialysis: a comparison of three dialysis modalities. Pediatr Nephrol 8(6):733–738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ledermann SE, Spitz L, Moloney J, Rees L, Trompeter RS (2002) Gastrostomy feeding in infants and children on peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 17(4):246–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shroff R, Wright E, Ledermann S, Hutchinson C, Rees L (2003) Chronic hemodialysis in infants and children under 2 years of age. Pediatr Nephrol 18(4):378–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS) (2011) [cited 6/20/2012]. Available from https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/Annual%20Report%20-2008.pdf
  52. 52.
    Warady BA, Bakkaloglu S, Newland J, Cantwell M, Verrina E, Neu AM, Chadha V, Yap H, Schaefer F (2012) Consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections and peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis: 2012 update. Perit Dial Int 32:S32–S86CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chadha V, Jones LL, Ramirez ZD, Warady BA (2000) Chest wall peritoneal dialysis catheter placement in infants with a colostomy. Adv Perit Dial 16:318–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neu AM, Kohaut EC, Warady BA (1995) Current approach to peritoneal access in North American children: a report of the Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Consortium. Adv Perit Dial 11:289–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    White CT, Gowrishankar M, Feber J, Yiu V (2006) Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 21(8):1059–1066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nicholson ML, Burton PR, Donnelly PK, Veitch PS, Walls J (1991) The role of omentectomy in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 11(4):330–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cribbs RK, Greenbaum LA, Heiss KF (2010) Risk factors for early peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in children. J Pediatr Surg 45(3):585–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rinaldi S, Sera F, Verrina E, Edefonti A, Gianoglio B, Perfumo F, Sorino P, Zacchello G, Cutaia I, Lavoratti G, Leozappa G, Pecoraro C, Rizzoni G (2004) Chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters in children: a fifteen-year experience of the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis. Perit Dial Int 24(5):481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Conlin MJ, Tank ES (1995) Minimizing surgical problems of peritoneal dialysis in children. J Urol 154(2 Pt 2):917–919CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lewis MA, Smith T, Postlethwaite RJ, Webb NJ (1997) A comparison of double-cuffed with single-cuffed Tenckhoff catheters in the prevention of infection in pediatric patients. Adv Perit Dial 13:274–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rees L, Brandt ML (2010) Tube feeding in children with chronic kidney disease: technical and practical issues. Pediatr Nephrol 25(4):699–704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Warady BA, Alexander SR, Hossli S, Vonesh E, Geary D, Watkins S, Salusky IB, Kohaut EC (1996) Peritoneal membrane transport function in children receiving long-term dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 7(11):2385–2391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fischbach M, Desprez P, Terzic J, Lahlou A, Mengus L, Geisert J (1996) Use of intraperitoneal pressure, ultrafiltration and purification dwell times for individual peritoneal dialysis prescription in children. Clin Nephrol 46(1):14–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Durand PY (2000) Optimization of fill volumes in automated peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 20(6):601–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Menouer S, Bergere V, Ferjani L, Haraldsson B (2000) Impact of fill volume changes on peritoneal dialysis tolerance and effectiveness in children. Adv Perit Dial 16:321–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Menouer S, Haraldsson B (2000) Optimal volume prescription for children on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 20(6):603–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Clinical practice recommendations for peritoneal dialysis adequacy. Am J Kidney Dis, 2006. 48(Suppl 1):S130–S158Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Golper TA (2001) A summary of the 2000 update of the NKF-K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on peritoneal dialysis adequacy. Perit Dial Int 21(5):438–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fischbach M, Warady BA (2009) Peritoneal dialysis prescription in children: bedside principles for optimal practice. Pediatr Nephrol 24(9):1633–1642; quiz 1640, 1642CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Canepa A, Verrina E, Perfumo F (2008) Use of new peritoneal dialysis solutions in children. Kidney Int Suppl 108:S137–S144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    de Boer AW, Schroder CH, van Vliet R, Willems JL, Monnens LA (2000) Clinical experience with icodextrin in children: ultrafiltration profiles and metabolism. Pediatr Nephrol 15(1–2):21–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dart A, Feber J, Wong H, Filler G (2005) Icodextrin re-absorption varies with age in children on automated peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 20(5):683–685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    van Hoeck KJ, Rusthoven E, Vermeylen L, Vandesompel A, Marescau B, Lilien M, Schroder CH (2003) Nutritional effects of increasing dialysis dose by adding an icodextrin daytime dwell to Nocturnal Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis (NIPD) in children. Nephrol Dial Transplant 18(7):1383–1387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    KDOQI Work Group (2009) KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in Children with CKD: 2008 update. Executive summary. Am J Kidney Dis 53(3 Suppl 2):S11–104Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Reed RB, Stuart HC (1959) Patterns of growth in height and weight from birth to eighteen years of age. Pediatrics 24:904–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lowrey G (1978) Growth and development of children, 7th edn. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kari JA, Gonzalez C, Ledermann SE, Shaw V, Rees L (2000) Outcome and growth of infants with severe chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 57(4):1681–1687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Karlberg J, Schaefer F, Hennicke M, Wingen AM, Rigden S, Mehls O (1996) Early age-dependent growth impairment in chronic renal failure. European Study Group for Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. Pediatr Nephrol 10(3):283–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Furth SL, Stablein D, Fine RN, Powe NR, Fivush BA (2002) Adverse clinical outcomes associated with short stature at dialysis initiation: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatrics 109(5):909–913CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wong CS, Hingorani S, Gillen DL, Sherrard DJ, Watkins SL, Brandt JR, Ball A, Stehman-Breen CO (2002) Hypoalbuminemia and risk of death in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 61(2):630–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Food and Nutrition Board (2002) Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies, Food and Nutrition Board Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Quan A, Baum M (1996) Protein losses in children on continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 10(6):728–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lapeyraque AL, Haddad E, Andre JL, Bremond-Gignac D, Taylor CM, Rianthavorn P, Salusky IB, Loirat C (2003) Sudden blindness caused by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in 5 children on continuous peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 42(5):E3–E9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bunchman TE (1995) Chronic dialysis in the infant less than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol 9(Suppl):S18–S22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bellisle F, Dartois AM, Kleinknecht C, Broyer M (1995) Alteration of the taste for sugar in renal insufficiency: study in the child. Nephrologie 16(2):203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mak RH, Cheung W, Cone RD, Marks DL (2006) Leptin and inflammation-associated cachexia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 69(5):794–797CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Daschner M, Tonshoff B, Blum WF, Englaro P, Wingen AM, Schaefer F, Wuhl E, Rascher W, Mehls O (1998) Inappropriate elevation of serum leptin levels in children with chronic renal failure. European Study Group for Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. J Am Soc Nephrol 9(6):1074–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ruley EJ, Bock GH, Kerzner B, Abbott AW, Majd M, Chatoor I (1989) Feeding disorders and gastroesophageal reflux in infants with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 3(4):424–429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ramage IJ, Geary DF, Harvey E, Secker DJ, Balfe JA, Balfe JW (1999) Efficacy of gastrostomy feeding in infants and older children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 19(3):231–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mekahli D, Shaw V, Ledermann SE, Rees L (2010) Long-term outcome of infants with severe chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5(1):10–17CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rees L, Azocar M, Borzych D, Watson AR, Buscher A, Edefonti A, Bilge I, Askenazi D, Leozappa G, Gonzales C, van Hoeck K, Secker D, Zurowska A, Ronnholm K, Bouts AH, Stewart H, Ariceta G, Ranchin B, Warady BA, Schaefer F (2011) Growth in very young children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 22(12):2303–2312CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dello Strologo L, Principato F, Sinibaldi D, Appiani AC, Terzi F, Dartois AM, Rizzoni G (1997) Feeding dysfunction in infants with severe chronic renal failure after long-term nasogastric tube feeding. Pediatr Nephrol 11(1):84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Warady BA, Kriley M, Belden B, Hellerstein S, Alan U (1990) Nutritional and behavioural aspects of nasogastric tube feeding in infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 6:265–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Warady BA, Weis L, Johnson L (1996) Nasogastric tube feeding in infants on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 16(Suppl 1):S521–S525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wong H, Mylrea K, Cameron A, Manion I, Bass J, Feber J, Filler G (2005) Caregiver attitudes towards gastrostomy removal after renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 9(5):574–578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    von Schnakenburg C, Feneberg R, Plank C, Zimmering M, Arbeiter K, Bald M, Fehrenbach H, Griebel M, Licht C, Konrad M, Timmermann K, Kemper MJ (2006) Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 26(1):69–77Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ramage IJ, Harvey E, Geary DF, Hebert D, Balfe JA, Balfe JW (1999) Complications of gastrostomy feeding in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13(3):249–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Warady BA, Bashir M, Donaldson LA (2000) Fungal peritonitis in children receiving peritoneal dialysis: a report of the NAPRTCS. Kidney Int 58(1):384–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Neu AM, Ho PL, McDonald RA, Warady BA (2001) Chronic dialysis in children and adolescents. The 2001 NAPRTCS annual report. Pediatr Nephrol 17(8):656–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS) (2011) [cited 6/30/2011]. Available from https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/annualrept2011.pdf
  101. 101.
    Wedekin M, Ehrich JH, Offner G, Pape L (2010) Renal replacement therapy in infants with chronic renal failure in the first year of life. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5(1):18–23CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Annual Report of the U.S. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients: Transplant Data 1994–2009. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Division of Transplantation, Rockville; United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond; University Renal Research and Education Association, Ann Arbor, 2010Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wood EG, Hand M, Briscoe DM, Donaldson LA, Yiu V, Harley FL, Warady BA, Ellis EN (2001) Risk factors for mortality in infants and young children on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 37(3):573–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ledermann SE, Scanes ME, Fernando ON, Duffy PG, Madden SJ, Trompeter RS (2000) Long-term outcome of peritoneal dialysis in infants. J Pediatr 136(1):24–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shroff R, Rees L, Trompeter R, Hutchinson C, Ledermann S (2006) Long-term outcome of chronic dialysis in children. Pediatr Nephrol 21(2):257–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsChildren’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Pediatric NephrologyChildren’s Mercy Hospitals and ClinicsKansas CityUSA
  4. 4.Dialysis and TransplantationChildren’s Mercy Hospitals and ClinicsKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations