eImage: Elements and Effects of Positive Organizational Online Identity

  • Steven Walczak
  • Dawn G. Gregg
  • Gary L. Borkan
  • Michael A. Erskine
Chapter
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

Businesses and individuals must appear both capable and trustworthy in order to be successful in the online environment, including electronic commerce transactions. This chapter presents recent findings and implications of these findings on the eImage paradigm first suggested by Gregg and Walczak (MIS Quarterly 32:653–670, 2008). Perceptions of capability and trustworthiness are formed using a variety of digital signals including the aesthetic and informational quality of an individual’s or organization’s website, third-party evaluations, and electronic communications, among others. Knowledge of the various factors that influence perceptions of capability and trustworthiness will enable individuals and businesses to improve their eImage or online identity. Suggestions are made for future research needed in this domain.

Keywords

eImage Electronic commerce Online identity Signaling theory Website quality 

References

  1. Akerlof, G. (1970). The market for ‘lemons’: Quality under uncertainty and the market mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ba, S., & Pavlou, P. A. (2002). Evidence of the effect of trust building technology in electronic markets: Price premiums and buyer behavior. MIS Quarterly, 26(3), 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakos, Y., & Kemerer, C. F. (1992). Recent applications of economic theory in information technology research. Decision Support Systems, 8(5), 365–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bapna, R., Goes, P., & Gupta, A. (2003). Analysis and design of business-to-consumer online auctions. Management Science, 49(1), 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, S. J., & Vidgen, R. T. (2001). “Assessing the quality of auction web sites”, proceedings of the 34th Hawaii international conference on systems sciences (pp. 1–10). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, K. (2011). Socially graceful CRM? Why the old rules of etiquette no longer apply. Customer Relationship Management Magazine, 15(6), 26–30.Google Scholar
  7. Belanger, F., Hiller, J. S., & Smith, W. J. (2002). Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: The Role of privacy, security, and site attributes. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3/4), 245–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benn, E. S. (2010). Restaurant reviewing reaches warp speed, stltoday.com, URL. Accessed January 25, 2012, http://www.stltoday.com/entertainment/dining/restaurants/article_23d1fdc4-5a75-5358-a159-99c94b1b0b3c.html
  9. Bhattacherjee, A. (2002). Individual trust in online firms: Scale development and initial test. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(1), 211–241.Google Scholar
  10. California office of privacy protection. (2012). Spring clean your online image. URL. Accessed April 17, 2012, http://www.privacyprotection.ca.gov/
  11. Chen, J. V., Lin, C., Yen, D. C., & Linn, K. (2011). The interaction effects of familiarity, breadth and media usage on web browsing experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2141–2152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CIA. (2011). The World Factbook. URL. Accessed December 30, 2011, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2153rank.html
  13. Clemons, E. K. (2007). An empirical investigation of third-party seller rating systems in e-commerce: The case of buy SAFE. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(2), 43–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Culnan, M. J., & Armstrong, P. K. (1999). Information privacy concerns, procedural fairness and impersonal trust: An empirical investigation. Organization Science, 10(1), 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Figueiredo, J. M. (2000). Finding sustainable profitability in electronic commerce. Sloan Management Review, 41(4), 41–52.Google Scholar
  16. Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(4), 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinev, T. & Hart, P. (2004). Internet privacy concerns and their antecedents—measurement validity and a regression model. Behaviour & Information Technology, 23(6), 413–422.Google Scholar
  18. Ding, C. H. Q., Zha, H., He, X., Husbands, P., & Simon, H. D. (2004). Link analysis: Hubs and authorities on the World Wide Web. SIAM Review, 46(2), 256–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott, R. K., & Jacobson, P. D. (1994). Costs and benefits of business information disclosure. Accounting Horizons, 8(4), 80–96.Google Scholar
  20. Fritz, M. (2007). E-commerce partnering due diligence: A methodology for trust in e-commerce in food networks. Food Economics: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C, 4(1), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garrett, J. J. (2006). Want to keep customers? Set them free. Business week online, URL. Accessed January 26 2012. http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/apr2006/id20060414_710600.htm
  22. Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2003). Managing user trust in B2C e-Services. e-Service Journal, 2(2), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Govers, R., Go, F. M., & Kumar, K. (2007). Promoting tourism destination image. Journal of Travel Research, 46(1), 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gregg, D. G., & Scott, J. (2006). The role of reputation systems in reducing online auction fraud. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 10(3), 97–122.Google Scholar
  25. Gregg, D. G., & Walczak, S. (2008). Dressing your online auction business for success: An experiment comparing two e-bay businesses. MIS Quarterly, 32(3), 653–670.Google Scholar
  26. Gregg, D. G., & Walczak, S. (2010). The relationship between website quality, trust, and price premiums at online auctions. Electronic Commerce Research, 10(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haynes, P. J., & Taylor, V. A. (2006). An examination of strategic practices in online retailing. Journal of Internet Commerce, 5(3), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hernández-Borges, A. A., Macías-Cervi, P., Gaspar-Guardado, M. A., Torres-Álvarez De Arcaya, M. L., Ruíz-Rabaza, A., & Jiménez-Sosa, A. (2003). User preference as quality markers of pediatric web sites. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 28(3), 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hobbs, S. (2010). Businesses must get proactive about managing their online reputation. Search engine land, URL. Accessed January 25 2012, http://searchengineland.com/businesses-must-get-proactive-about-managing-their-online-reputation-55360
  30. Hosmer, L. T. (1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379–403.Google Scholar
  31. Hudson, S., & Gilbert, D. (2006). The internet and small hospitality businesses: B&B marketing in Canada. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 14(1), 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. International Telecommunications Union. (2011). The World in 2011 ICT facts and figures. URL. Accessed November 30 2011, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2011.pdf
  33. Internet Retailer. (2011). URL. Accessed 30 November 2011, http://www.internetretailer.com/trends/sales/
  34. Jahmani, Y. (2003). The impact of segmental reporting disclosure on a firm’s perceived risk. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 13(2), 102–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jahng, J., Jain, H., & Ramamurthy, K. (2000). Effective design of electronic commerce environments: A proposed theory of congruence and an illustration. IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 30(4), 456–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Leidner, D. E. (1999). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Organization Science, 10(6), 791–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Tractinsky, N. (1999). Consumer trust in an internet store: A cross-cultural validation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 5(2). URL. Accessed January 25 2012, http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol5/issue2/jarvenpaa.html
  38. Jarvenpaa, S. L., Tractinsky, N., & Vitale, M. (2000). Consumer trust in an internet store. Information Technology and Management, 1(12), 331–336.Google Scholar
  39. Kabani, S. (2010). The zen of social media marketing: An easier way to build credibility, generate buzz, and increase revenue. BenBella: BenBella Books.Google Scholar
  40. Kauffman, R. J., & Wood, C. A. (2000). Running up the bid: Modeling supplier opportunism in internet auctions. In M. Chung (ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth Americas Conference in Information Systems, (pp. 929–936).Google Scholar
  41. Kim, S., & Stoel, L. (2004). Dimensional hierarchy of retail web quality. Information and Management, 41(5), 619–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kim, Y., Sohn, D., & Choi, S. M. (2011). Cultural difference in motivations for using social network sites: A comparative study of American and Korean college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Klein, B., & Leffler, K. (1981). The role of market forces in assuring contractual performance. Journal of Political Economy, 89(4), 615–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Konheim-Kalkstein, Y. L., & Van den Broek, P. (2008). The effect of incentives on cognitive processing of text. Discourse Processes, 45(2), 180–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koufaris, M., & Hampton-Sosa, W. (2004). The development of initial trust in an online company by new customers. Information Management, 41(3), 377–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, H. G. (1998). Do electronic marketplaces lower the price of goods? Communications of the ACM, 41(1), 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lewicki, R. J., Mcallister, D. J., & Bies, R. J. (1998). Trust and distrust: new relationships and realities. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 438–458.Google Scholar
  48. Mayer, R., & Davis, J. H. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.Google Scholar
  49. Mayer, R., Huh, J., & Cude, B. J. (2005). Cues of credibility and price performance of life insurance comparison web sites. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39(1), 71–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. (1998). Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 472–490.Google Scholar
  51. McKnight, D. H., Choudhury, V., & Kacmar, C. (2002). The impact of initial consumer trust on intentions to transact with a web site: A trust building model. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3/4), 297–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKnight, D. H., Kacmar, C. J., & Choudhury, V. (2004). Dispositional trust and distrust distinctions in predicting high- and low-risk internet expert advice site perceptions. e-Service Journal, 3(2), 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mellinger, G. D. (1956). Interpersonal trust as a factor in communication. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 52, 304–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Milano, R., Baggio, R., & Piatrelli, R. (2011). The effects of online social media on tourism websites. In R. Law, M. Fuchs, & F. Ricci (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2011 (pp. 471–484). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murphy, J., Raffa, L., & Mizerski, R. (2003). The use of domain names in e-branding by the world’s top brands. Electronic Markets, 13(3), 222–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nandan, S. (2005). Managing successful online brands: The journal from dot com to web brand franchise. Journal of Website Promotion, 1(2), 35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nelson, P. (1970). Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 78(2), 311–329.Google Scholar
  58. Park, C. S., & Srinivasan, V. (1994). A survey-based method for measuring and understanding brand equity and its extendibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(2), 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Park, J., Lee, Y., & Widdows, R. (2004). Empirical investigation on reputation and product information for trust formation in consumer to consumer market. Journal of the Academy of Business and Economics, 3(1), 231–239.Google Scholar
  60. Pavlou, P. (2003). Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: Integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7(3), 101–134.Google Scholar
  61. Petre, M., Minocha, S., & Roberts, D. (2006). Usability beyond the website: An empirically-grounded e-commerce evaluation instrument for the total customer experience. Behaviour and Information Technology, 25(2), 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ranganathan, C., & Ganapathy, S. (2002). Key dimensions of business-to-consumer web sites. Information and Management, 39(6), 457–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rao, A. R., & Monroe, M. (1996). Causes and consequences of price premiums. Journal of Business, 69(4), 511–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rao, A. R., Qu, L., & Ruekert, R. W. (1999). Signaling unobservable product quality through brand ally. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), 258–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Read, W. H. (1962). Upward communication in industrial hierarchies. Human Relations, 15(3), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Resnick, P., & Zeckhauser, R. (2002). Trust among strangers in internet transactions: Empirical analysis of eBay’s reputation system. In M. R. Baye (ed.), The economics of the internet and e-commerce, advances in applied microeconomics (Vol. 11. pp. 127–157). Amsterdam: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  67. Resnick, P., Zeckhauser, R., Friedman, E., & Kuwabara, K. (2000). Reputation systems. Communications of the ACM, 43(12), 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reynolds, W. H. (1965). The role of the consumer in image building. California Management Review, 7(3), 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rindova, V. P., Williamson, I. O., Petkova, A. P., & Sever, J. M. (2005). Being good or being known: An empirical examination of the dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of organizational reputation. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 1033–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rosa, J. A., Garbarino, E. C., & Malter, A. J. (2006). Keeping the body in mind: The influence of body esteem and body boundary aberration on consumer beliefs and purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16(1), 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Scott, J., & Gregg, D. (2004). The impact of product classification for online auctions: Proceedings of the 10th America’s Conference on Information Systems, (pp. 2376–2380). New York.Google Scholar
  72. Shih, C. (2011). The facebook era. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  73. Sidali, K. L., Schulze, H., & Spiller, A. (2009). The impact of online reviews on the choice of holiday accomodations, In W. Höpken, U. Gretzel, & R. Law (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2009: Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (pp. 87–98) New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  74. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Staff, Kiplinger’s. (2007). Walk-in critics. Kiplinger’s Personal Finance, 61(1), 24.Google Scholar
  76. Standifird, S. S. (2001). Reputation and e-commerce: eBay auctions and the asymmetrical impact of positive and negative ratings. Journal of Management, 27(3), 279–296.Google Scholar
  77. Tellis, G. J., & Wernerfelt, B. (1987). Competitive price and quality under asymmetric information. Marketing Science, 6(3), 240–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Teo, T. S. H., Lim, V. K. G., & Lai, R. Y. C. (1999). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in internet usage. Omega International Journal of Management Science, 27(1), 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. The Zimbabwean. (2011). Online sales soar in SA. URL. Accessed November 30 2011, http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/news/39694/online-sales-soar-in-sa.html
  80. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. uxmyths.com. (2010). Myth #2: All pages should be accessible in 3 clicks. URL. Accessed January 16 2012, http://uxmyths.com/post/654026581/myth-all-pages-should-be-accessible-in-3-clicks
  82. Vishwanath, A., & Barnett, G. A. (2005). An empirical investigation into the structure of bidding in online auctions. Electronic Markets, 15(3), 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Walczak, S. (2008). Knowledge management and organizational learning: An international research perspective. The Learning Organization, 15(6), 486–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Walczak, S., & Gregg, D. G. (2009). Factors influencing corporate online identity: A new paradigm. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. White, M. (2004). Building an intranet: Home sweet homepage. EContent, 27(5), 41.Google Scholar
  86. Wu, W. Y., & Li, C. Y. (2007). A contingency approach to incorporate human, emotional and social influence into a TAM for KM programs. Journal of Information Science, 33(3), 275–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang, P., & von Dran, G. M. (2001/2002). User expectations and rankings of quality factors in different web site domains. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(2), 9–33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Walczak
    • 1
  • Dawn G. Gregg
    • 1
  • Gary L. Borkan
    • 1
  • Michael A. Erskine
    • 1
  1. 1.The Business SchoolUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations