A Quadri-Stage Contention MAC Protocol with Opportunistic Network Coding Support for Underwater Acoustic Networks
In this paper, a novel distributed TDMA medium access control (MAC) protocol for multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs), termed opportunistic network coding supported quadri-stage contention protocol (NC-QSCP), has been proposed. The QSCP employs a concentrated contention procedure to form a transmission schedule, according to which nodes can perform collision free channel access in the following dedicated transmission stage. A contention probability calculation algorithm is designed to improve the efficiency of the data transmission, so that a heavy loaded node could acquire more channel resource. In the contention stage, the data flow information in 2-hop neighborhood is gathered, and can be exploited for both probability calculation and network coding opportunity discovery. When network coding is available, an XOR operation is applied to the packets with opposite directions. Both the contention probability calculation algorithm and the network coding scheme can remarkably improve the throughput and energy efficiency of QSCP protocol, especially in a tandem network carrying bidirectional traffics. The simulation illustrates that the opportunistic network coding achieves a 15% improvement in end-to-end throughput and reduces 20% energy consumption per delivered packet against QSCP.
KeywordsUnderwater Acoustic Sensor Networks TDMA Medium Access Control Opportunistic Network Coding
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