Innovation: Measurement and Indicators
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Briefly looking at the historical view of innovation data collection, we see that the first attempts to structure a formal guide for gathering R&D data can be traced back to the 1960s. This led to the first Frascati Manual in 1962 (Frascati Manual 2002). However, dealing specifically with collecting and interpreting innovation data, the Oslo Manual is much younger (1992) and so coherent methodological guidelines for innovation data have only been available since the 1990s.