Advertisement

Visuospatial Processing and Learning Effects in Virtual Reality Based Mental Rotation and Navigational Tasks

  • Thomas D. Parsons
  • Christopher G. Courtney
  • Michael E. Dawson
  • Albert A. Rizzo
  • Brian J. Arizmendi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8019)

Abstract

Visuospatial function and performance in interactions between humans and computers involve the human identification and manipulation of computer generated stimuli and their location. The impact of learning on mental rotation has been demonstrated in studies relating everyday spatial activities and spatial abilities. An aspect of visuospatial learning in virtual environments that has not been widely studied is the impact of threat on learning in a navigational task. In fact, to our knowledge, the combined assessment of learning during mental rotation trials and learning in an ecologically valid virtual reality-based navigational environment (that has both high and low threat zones) has not been adequately studied. Results followed expectation: 1) learning occurred in the virtual reality based mental rotation test. Although there was a relation between route learning and practice, a primacy effect was observed as participants performed more poorly when going from the first zone to the last.

Keywords

Visuospatial Processing Learning Virtual Reality Mental Rotation: Navigation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Strauss, E., Sherman, E., Spreen, O.: A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: administration, norms and commentary, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parsons, T.D., Larson, P., Buckwalter, J.G., Rizzo, A.A.: Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Virtual Reality Spatial Rotation. Neuropsychologia 42(4), 555–562 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feng, J., Spence, I., Pratt, J.: Playing an action video game reduces gender differences in spatial cognition. Psychological Science 18, 850–855 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Newcombe, N., Bandura, M.M., Taylor, D.G.: Sex differences in spatial ability and spatial activities. Sex Roles 9, 530–539 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Quaiser-Pohl, C., Lehmann, W.: Girls’ spatial abilities: Charting the contributions of experience and attitudes in different academic groups. British Journal of Educational Psychology 72, 245–260 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quaiser-Pohl, C., Geiser, C., Lehmann, W.: The relationship between computer-game preference, gender, and mental-rotation ability. Personality and Individual Differences 40, 609–619 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D’Hooge, R., De Deyn, P.P.: Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 36(1), 60–90 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morris, R.G.M.: Spatial localization does not require the presence of local cues. Learning and Motivation 2, 239–260 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morris, R.G., Garrud, P., Rawlins, J.N., O’Keefe, J.: Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature 297, 681–683 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Astur, R.S., Ortiz, M.L., Sutherland, R.J.: A characterization of performance by men and women in a virtual Morris water task: a large and reliable sex difference. Behav. Brain. Res. 93, 185–190 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamilton, D.A., Sutherland, R.J.: Blocking in human place learning: evidence from virtual navigation. Psychobiology 27, 453–461 (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamilton, D.A., Driscoll, I., Sutherland, R.J.: Human place learning in a virtual Morris water task: some important constraints on the flexibility of place navigation. Behav. Brain Res. 129, 159–170 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nadolne, M.J., Stringer, A.Y.: Ecologic validity in neuropsychological assessment: Prediction of wayfinding. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society 7, 675–682 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Waller, D., Hunt, E., Knapp, D.: The transfer of spatial knowledge in virtual environment training. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7(2), 129–143 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parsons, T.D.: Neuropsychological Assessment using Virtual Environments: Enhanced Assessment Technology for Improved Ecological Validity. In: Brahnam, S. (ed.) Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare: Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy, Rehabilitation, and Assessment, pp. 271–289. Springer, Germany (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walker, B., Lindsay, J.: Navigation Performance With a Virtual Auditory Display: Effects of Beacon Sound, Capture Radius, and Practice. Human Factors 48, 265–278 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shors, T.J., Dryver, E.: Stress impedes exploration and the acquisition of spatial information in the eight-arm radial maze. Psychobiology 20, 247–253 (1992)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lupien, S.J., de Leon, M., de Santi, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N.P., Thakur, M., McEwen, B.S., Hauger, R.L., Meaney, M.J.: Cortisollevels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nat. Neurosci. 1, 69–73 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety and Specific Phobias: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 39, 250–261 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rizzo, A.A., Pair, J., Graap, K., Treskunov, A., Parsons, T.D.: User-Centered Design Driven Development of a VR Therapy Application for Iraq War Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technology, pp. 113–122 (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wu, D., Courtney, C., Lance, B., Narayanan, S.S., Dawson, M., Oie, K., Parsons, T.D.: Optimal Arousal Identification and Classification for Affective Computing: Virtual Reality Stroop Task. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 1, 109–118 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Macedonio, M., Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Immersiveness and Physiological Arousal within Panoramic Video-based Virtual Reality. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 10, 508–516 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Courtney, C.G., Dawson, M.E., Schell, A.M., Iyer, A., Parsons, T.D.: Better than the real thing: Eliciting fear with moving and static computer-generated stimuli. International Journal of Psyhophysiology 78, 107–114 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A.: Initial Validation of a Virtual Environment for Assessment of Memory Functioning: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 11, 17–25 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parsons, T.D., Cosand, L., Courtney, C., Iyer, A., Rizzo, A.A.: Neurocognitive Workload Assessment Using the Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test. In: Harris, D. (ed.) EPCE 2009. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5639, pp. 243–252. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parsons, T.D., Rizzo, A.A., Courtney, C., Dawson, M.: Psychophysiology to Assess Impact of Varying Levels of Simulation Fidelity in a Threat Environment. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction 5, 1–9 (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Casey, M.B., Brabeck, M.M.: Exceptions to the male advantage on a spatial task: Family handedness and college major as factors identifying women who excel. Neuropsychologia 27, 689–696 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baenninger, M., Newcombe, N.: The role of experience in spatial test performance: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles 20, 327–344 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hampson, E.: Variations in sex-related cognitive abilities across the menstrual cycle. Brain and Cognition 14, 26–43 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kail, R.: The impact of extended practice on rate of mental rotation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 42, 378–391 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Parsons
    • 1
  • Christopher G. Courtney
    • 2
  • Michael E. Dawson
    • 2
  • Albert A. Rizzo
    • 2
  • Brian J. Arizmendi
    • 2
  1. 1.University of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations