The Coronas-F Space Mission pp 175-256
The Study of the Cosmic Gamma-Emission Nonstationary Fluxes Characteristics by the AVS-F Apparatus Data
The AVS-F apparatus (Russian abbreviation for Amplitude-Time Spectrometry of the Sun) is intended for the solar flares’ hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission characteristic studies and for the search and detection of the gamma-ray bursts (GRB). At present over 1,100 events with duration more than 2 s without any coordinate relations to Earth Radiation Belts and South Atlantic Anomaly were separated on the results of preliminary analysis of AVS-F experiment database.About 68 % of the identified events were associated with quasistationary equatorial precipitations-15-30 % count rate increases in the low-energy gamma-band of the AVS-F apparatus over its average value obtained by approximation of these parts with polynomials discovered on some equatorial segments in the ranges of geographic latitude of 25∘ up to +30∘. Several short events with duration of 1-16 ms associated with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes were registered during the experiment. These events were detected above the powerful thunderstorm formations.Solar flares with classes stronger than M1.0 according to the GOES classification were about 7 % of the detected events. Solar flares’ hard X-rays and γ-emission were mainly observed during the rise or maximum phases of the emission in the soft X-rays band according to the detectors on board the GOES series satellites data and duration of their registration is less than of the soft X-ray bands. According to the preliminary data analysis gamma-emission with energy over 10 MeV was registered during 12 % of the observed flares. The emission in the energy band E ¿ 100 keV was registered during over 60 faint solar flares (of B and C classes according to the GOES and from several ones γ-quanta with energy up to several tens of MeV were observed.Several spectral line complexes were observed in the spectra of some solar flares stronger than M1.0 in the low-energy gamma-range. Registered spectral features were corresponded to α α-lines, annihilation line, nuclear lines, and neutron capture line on1H (2.223 MeV). In the spectrum of the January 20, 2005 solar flare the feature in the range of 15-21 MeV was detected for the first time. It can be associated with lines of 15.11 MeV (12C +16O) or 20.58 MeV (from neutron radiative capture on3He), or with their combination. Also several e-dominant flares without any gamma-lines in energy spectra were identified. All detected faint solar flares were e-dominant according to the preliminary data analysis.Thin structure with characteristic timescale of 30-160 s was observed at 99 % significance level on some solar flares stronger than M1.0 temporal profiles in the low-energy gamma-band in the energy ranges corresponding to the identified spectral features or whole gamma-band energy boundaries. According to the results of the preliminary analysis during the flare of January 20, 2005, thin structure with timescale from 7 ms to 35 ms was detected at 99 % confidence level in the energy range of 0.1-20 MeV. Some thin structure with characteristic timescale 50-110 s was observed on temporal profiles of several faint events.About 3 % of the identified events were gamma-ray bursts. During some bursts high-energy gamma-emission was observed, for example Emax = 147 ± 3 MeV for GRB050525.